Seven Years at a Glimpse: A Brief History of ICDs Growth
By Hong Cheng & Sandhya Rao
Hong Cheng (Bradley University) is the
current ICD Head (2002-2003) and Sandhya Rao (Southwest Texas State University) is former ICD Head (1999-2000).
The authors are grateful to Yorgo Pasadeos (University of Alabama) and Anne
Cooper-Chen (Ohio University) for providing ICB back issues and wish to thank
John Merrill (University of Missouri) and Sharon Murphy (Bradley University)
for their consultation.
We are very proud of being part of the ICD because we know how much our colleagues
in the Division have contributed over the decades to make it what it is today.
Although we are unable to accommodate all of the exciting moments in our
glorious history, we have done our best mainly based on the information
available in the back issues of the International Communication Bulletin.
A good perspective of where we came from may help our Division decide where we
would like to go in the future.
the 1965 annual convention held at Syracuse University, the American
Association for Education in Journalism (AEJ) approved the formation of an
International Communication Division (ICD), petitioned by 47 faculty members
from 37 universities in 24 states and the District of Columbia. In a few
months, 20 other members joined the Division. The first three officers ever
elected in ICD were: John B. Adams (North Carolina), Head; James W. Markham
(Iowa), Vice Head; Carter R. Bryan (Maryland), Secretary-Treasurer. Five
committees were appointed by the Division Head: Executive, Teaching, Research,
Liaison, and Objectives Committees. In 1975 the Press Freedom and
Responsibility Committee was formed. Since the mid-1960s, many ICD members have
served the Division in various capacities.
Inauguration of ICB
In January 1966, the Division launched the International Communication Bulletin
(ICB) as a medium of information not now readily available elsewhere
for all who work in the rapidly expanding field of international communication(ICB,
Vol. 1, No. 1, 1966, p. 1). The two-page newsletter was expanded to a four-page
publication for the second and third issues. Its founding editor was James W.
Over the years, some major upgrades have been made to ensure that the publication
better serves ICD members and non-ICD readers. Since its fourth issue in 1966, ICB
was often published with six pages and continuously issued in January, April,
July, and October for two decades. During the eight years from 1966 through
1973, ICB was published by the University of Iowa School of Journalism.
When James W. Markham passed away in February 1972, Hanno Hardt (Iowa)
succeeded as the ICB editor. In 1974, two issues were produced at Temple
University School of Communications and Theater under Sam G. Riley's
editorship. From 1975 through 1985, the University of Maryland College of
Journalism was home to ICB, with L. John Martin as its editor for 11
years. At the beginning of 1986, the ICD publication was moved to the then
School of Communication at the University of Alabama. Since 1987, ICB has
been issued each spring and fall as most of the time a more-than-30-page
publication under the leadership of Yorgo Pasadeos (Alabama), who is now in his
15th year of service as the ICB
editor, the longest in ICD's 37-year history.
ICD's Major Initiatives
ICD's tradition of collaborating with
other AEJMC divisions began soon after its founding. As early as in 1968, for
example, the Division co-sponsored a session with the Radio and Television
Division on international broadcasting and another one with the Mass
Communication and Society Division on the coverage of the Vietnam War. ICD's tradition of hosting sessions
on international communication teaching can also be traced to the 1968 AEJ
annual convention. A roundtable discussion was moderated by Floyd G. Arpan
(Indiana), the then ICD Teaching Committee Chair. Other panel members were
Charles Kappen (San Jose State), James W. Markham, and John B. Adams.
In addition to regular
research and teaching sessions at annual conventions, ICD members have been
actively interacting with media practitioners and other communication scholars.
For example, in 1974, Gertrude J. Robinson (McGill) requested foreign scholars
who were visiting the United States and were interested in serving on a foreign
scholars panel at the San Diego convention to provide her with a resume of
their research interests and ideas for the panel discussion theme. During the
1975 AEJ convention in Ottawa, Canada, ICD members had an opportunity to visit
with Canadian and foreign journalists at a preconvention reception at the
National Press Club in Ottawa. During the same convention, the Canadian
Department of External Affairs hosted ICD members, briefing them on Canada-U.S.
relations. During the 1976 AEJ convention at the University of Maryland, ICD
members attended a special briefing on the activities of the U.S. Information
Agency at its headquarters, which included a discussion of the work of the USIA
Office of Research. After the briefing, the group went to the USIA Press Center
in the National Press Building and met with resident foreign correspondents. In
1978, ICD co-sponsored with the University of Washington School of
Communications a preconvention workshop at the AEJ convention. The workshop
focused on mass communication research in South and East Asia. At the 1991 Boston
convention, ICD for the first time held a social co-sponsored by the Chinese
Communication Association and the Korean American Communication Association.
Over the years, ICD has also
promoted many out-of-convention activities. As early as in 1974, the Division
co-sponsored with the Department of Communication, Universidad Iberoamericana,
a seminar in Mexico City, March 11-15. John C. Merrill (Missouri), the 1972-73
ICD Head, planned and put on this first-ever overseas conference for the
Division. Ramona Rush (Florida), the then ICD Head, and Jesus M. Cortina
(Iberoamericana) co-directed the seminar. Richard R. Cole (North Carolina) and
Albert L. Hester (Georgia) co-edited the seminar's proceedings and published them in book form. In
1978, ICD co-sponsored a daylong symposium on precision journalism and mass
media technology in Warsaw. This symposium was in honor of Raymond B. Nixon
(United States) and Francesco Fattorello (Italy), two pioneers in international
communication and leaders in the International Association for Mass
Communication Research (IAMCR), and marked ICD's first major cooperation with IAMCR and the
International Organization of Journalists. ICD coordinators for the symposium
were Ramona R. Rush and Richard R. Cole. In May 1983, ICD held an overseas
conference in Seoul, in conjunction with the Korean Society for Journalism and
Communication Studies, on the theme of "Agendas for World Communication." Jae-Won Lee (Cleveland State),
the then ICD Head, coordinated this collaboration. In April 1991, ICD held its
first mini-conference on international communication and ethics at the
University of Missouri under Robert Knight's and John C. Merrill's initiative. In 1994, ICD co-sponsored, along with
other AEJMC divisions, the Media and Environment Conference in Reno, Nevada,
April 7-9. Most recently, ICD has co-sponsored the International Media 2000
Conference held at Ohio University on March 10-11 (organized by Anne
Cooper-Chen) and the Global Fusion 2000 Conference held in October 2000 in St. Louis,
jointly hosted by Southern Illinois University's College of Mass Communication & Media Arts
(Carbondale) and Department of Mass Communications (Edwardsville).
While promoting academic and
professional activities in and outside conventions, ICD members have
demonstrated their generosity by supporting overseas colleagues who are in
need. In 1975, following a hurricane that caused great devastation, ICD
received an appeal for help in the form of equipment from the Instituto
Centroamericano de Ciencias y Tecnicas de la Comunicacion in Tegucigalpa,
Honduras. The ICD Executive Committee authorized a $50 contribution for the
purchase of equipment in the name of the Division. In 1989, Anne Cooper-Chen,
the then Division Head, initiated the ICD Great Overseas Book Project as a
response to a call from Everette Dennis (Gannett Center for Media Studies) for
mass communication books and journals to support overseas colleagues and
libraries. The project was continued to the 1991 AEJMC convention in Boston.
Erwin K. Thomas (Norfolk State) was in charge of the project. In 1992, a
similar call was made in ICB to ICD members for donating journalism and
mass communication textbooks to Nigerian colleagues in Lagos. In 2000 such a
call was made to donate journalism textbooks to the university library in
Challenge of Growth
In the past 37 years, ICD
has grown from its 47 founding members in August 1965 to the current 375 active
members. It was the largest of AEJ's 12 divisions in 1967, 4th in 1970,
and 7th in AEJMC's 15 divisions in 1988. Currently, it is the 6th largest
of AEJMC's 24
divisions and interest groups as far as membership numbers go.
ICD's growth has not occurred without
the efforts of many clear-headed Division leaders, who have constantly reminded
members that the Division's survival
is a challenge. The most illustrative is perhaps a sharp question raised by
Anne Cooper-Chen in her 1989 "ICD Heads Message": "Should we put ourselves out of business?" In her message, Cooper-Chen
quoted James F. Scotton (Marquette) as saying, "The Division risks getting out of the mainstream if it
continues on its present path"(ICB, Vol. 24, Fall 1989, p. 3). Scotton bemoaned the heavy
reliance on content analysis, calling for (a) non-content studies, (b)
longitudinal studies, and (c) effects studies. Similarly, Christine L. Ogan
(Indiana) called the field of international communication "anecdotal and atheoretical"(ibid.). Cooper-Chen, Ogan, and
was echoed in Tsan-Kuo Changs (Minnesota) 1991 "s Message."
Based on ICDs moderate size and its limited
funds, Chang concluded that "our division has a long way to go to attract more talents and interest," urging ICD colleagues to take
"a more active leadership role
within AEJMC to provide a much-needed international focus for work of other
Vol. 26, Spring 1991, p. 4).
Over the years, consistent
efforts have been made by numerous ICD members to help our Division grow. In
1975 Richard R. Cole and Vernon Keel (South Dakota State) updated the ICD
membership directory first produced in 1973 by John C. Merrill and J. Laurence
Day (Kansas). This updated directory included information on ICD members,
journalism schools, and research centers in communications. For the first time
the directory included an international guide. In the same year, efforts were
also made to arrange reciprocal affiliate membership between AEJ and IAMCR, one
of many membership exchanges and affiliations considered by the Division and by
AEJMC ever since.
There has been a sustained
effort to increase membership in the Division over the last three decades.
Membership and Promotion committees, under the leadership of John S. Nichols
(Penn State) and Abraham Bass (Northern Illinois), among others, have targeted
specific groups such as international graduate students and overseas AEJ
members. Promotional materials have included slides and brochures. In 1984,
Chin-Chuan Lee (Minnesota), the then ICD International Committee Chair, began "to explore ways to promote the
usefulness of ICD to colleagues abroad and to enhance our U.S. members' opportunities of studying or
working abroad" (ICB,
Vol. 19, No. 4, 1984, p. 39). In 1985, Bonnie J. Brownlee (Indiana), the then
Division Secretary, worked hard on a membership drive that took the form of a
contest. She announced in an open letter to ICD members published in ICB
that a sophisticated short-wave radio (a $200 value) would go to the member who
could recruit the most new members in that year. Two years later, Brownlee
wrote as the Division Head, "Because AEJMCs
International Committee . . . has been disbanded for lack of clear mandate . .
., I feel particularly committed to expanding our divisional activities beyond
the borders of the United States, beyond the confines of AEJMC" (Brownlee, "Heads Report," ICB, Vol. 22, Fall 1987,
years, our Division has been highly competitive and active in research. As the
AEJMC Standing Committee on Research noted in its 1989-90 annual report, ICD
of the leading divisions in sheer numbers of papers (Chang, ICD
ICB, Vol. 26, Spring 1991, p. 4). The Division received 51 papers in
1988, 66 in 1989, and 67 in 1990. Because of increased submissions and limited
space available, the acceptance rate of the papers was decreasing: 48% in 1988,
47% in 1989, and 45% in 1990. The last figure, according to Tsan-Kuo Chang,
ranked 9th among the 15
divisions, suggesting a higher rejection rate in our Division. In 1999, the
Division received 117 papers, one of the highest submission numbers for the New
Orleans convention. Faculty paper acceptance rate was 31%, the lowest in its
category among all AEJMC divisions last year.
increased submission of papers to the Division also means an increased need for
more participation of ICD members. By 1999, Kazumi Hasegawa (Emerson), the then
Research Chair, and Peter Gross (California State Chico), the then
Student Paper Competition Coordinator, developed what Michael G. Elasmar
(Boston), the then ICD Head, called the most impressive list of paper
reviewers our division has ever seen (Elasmar, ICD Heads Message, ICB, Vol. 34, Spring 1999, p. 3).
With more than 130 voluntary reviewers, this list has met the Divisions
needs for annual paper reviews and provided an expert pool for journals and
other publications in international communication.
the last two years, more fundamental projects have been conducted within the
Division. During the 1998-99 academic year, Michael G. Elasmar completed two
large-scale surveys among Division members. A membership census, which
collected ICD members names, expertise areas, and contact information, was designed to
help those outside our field find an expert with their qualities, and help you
search for colleagues worldwide with similar areas of expertise for
collaborative work (ibid.). The other survey led to a list of journals that ICD
members positively evaluated and recommended as receptive for international communication
the 1999-2000 academic year, Sandhya Rao (Southwest Texas State), then ICD
Head, drafted a job description for each ICD officer. Intended to serve
as a guide to new officers as they come in and enable them to be even more
productive (Rao, Division Heads Message, ICB, Vol. 34, Fall 1999, p. 5),
this document has been posted on ICDs home page.
In the meantime, a task force was set up to study the
feasibility of opening the International Newswriting Contest (first launched by
Rao as Teaching Standards Chair at the 1997 Chicago convention for students in
the United States) to undergraduates in all countries in order to make
the divisions activities more inclusive of all international scholars
(ibid.). An International Newswriting Contest Coordinator position with
a three-year term -- was created in 1999 to ensure continuity in the contest.
the last few years, ICD has been using the Internet as a new communication
vehicle to disseminate information among the Division members and to promote
the Division worldwide. In 1996, Jyotika Ramaprasad (Southern
Illinois-Carbondale), a former ICD Head, became the Divisions
first Webmaster, creating its home page. During
the 1999-2000 academic year, Rosental C. Alves (Texas), then ICD Webmaster,
offered many links of value to the Divisions members. Since 2001, Kazumi Hasegawa,
ICD Head during 2000-2001 and current ICD webmaster has added new features and
keeps the web site updated. In 2002, Richard C. Vincent (Indiana State), then
ICD Secretary, created a listserv for the division, which enables the division
to disseminate messages to most of its members instantly via e-mail.
ICD honors selected
individuals (occasionally, institutions) with several Division awards each year.
In 1980 it began with the AEJ convention in Boston to make a Distinguished
Service to International Communication Award. The award is conferred on an individual or
medium adjudged to have made an outstanding contribution in the field of
international communication during the preceding year or over a period of years (ICB, Vol. 15, No. 2,
1980, p. 265). Recipients of this award in the past include the Christian
Science Monitor (1980, 1987), Robert Cox (1981), Floyd G. Arpan (1982),
Alex S. Edelstein (1983), Wilbur Schramm (1984), John C. Merrill (1985), and L.
John Martin (1989).
The Divisions James W. Markham Award Competition is
held annually. On February 7, 1972, Dr. James W. Markham (1910-72), founder and
editor of ICB (1966-72) and a major founder of ICD, died of cancer. ICB
editors carried a photo of Dr. Markhams the first time ever and the only time so
on this ICD publication and devoted the entire front page and one half of the
second page of the April 1972 issue to Dr. Markham, whom Leslie G. Moeller,
former director of the University of Iowa School of Journalism, called in her
distinguished scholar, a revered teacher, and a fine human being (ICB,
Vol. 7, No. 2, 1972, p. 131). Three annual awards for student papers were established
and named after Dr. Markham by ICD with memorial contributions to honor quality
papers in the field of international communication (ICB, Vol. 8,
No. 4, 1973, p. 155). The first Markham awards were announced at the 1973 AEJ
Convention in Fort Collins, Colorado. Thomas Pasqua (Texas) was first-place
winner, receiving a check for $100 in addition to a certificate presented to
all three winners. Pasqua also gave a brief summary of his paper at the ICD
meeting during the convention. Second-place honor went to Dennis L. Wilcox
(Missouri), and Leroy J. Gregory, Jr. (Florida) took third place for his paper.
In 1979, the Division invited for the first time in ICB, undergraduates
to submit papers for the James W. Markham Award Competition.
first annual Mary A. Gardner (Michigan State) Scholarship was awarded at the
1983 AEJMC convention in Corvallis, Oregon. The $500 award and a certificate
were given to a student in an accredited news-editorial program who was
interested in news reporting and editing as a career and had a GPA of 3.0 or
better. Funding was provided by Dr. Gardners three former students: Gloria Anderson,
of the New York Times Syndicate, Miami; Jean Etsinger, then of the Miami
Heralds; and Frank Denton, of the Wisconsin State Journal. In 1985,
the Mary A. Gardner Scholarship capital was increased by a $1,000 contribution
from Jean Etsinger. The award was handed over to the AEJMC's central authority
during the 1993-94 academic year and has been handled by them ever since.
Since the 1993 Kansas City AEJMC
convention, ICD has given a Best Faculty Paper Award annually, selected in the
paper competition. The winner receives a recognition certificate and a $100
monetary prize. More recently, the ICD has also been recognizing the winners of
the International Newswriting Contest with cash awards. During the year 2000,
taking the unique turn-of-the-century opportunity, the International
Communication Scholar of the 20th Century Award was given postomously to Dr.
Wilbur Schramm at a special panel organized in his honor at the Phoenix
convention. The plaque was sent to
Stanford University where Dr. Schramm spent many years. All the Divisions awards are given during AEJMC
The Division has indeed come a long way.
With a large number of enthusiastic members and the current trends of
globalization, the International Communication Division is all set to move
Milestones of the
International Communication Division
approves ICDs formation. There are 47 founding members, and John B.
Adams (North Carolina) is the Divisions first Head.
Communication Bulletin (ICB) is inaugurated with James W.
Markham (Iowa) as the founding editor.
students can compete in a student paper contest.
student paper contest is open to all graduate students.
W. Markham Award Competition is started.
sponsors first out-of-convention seminar with the Universidad Iberoamericana
in Mexico City.
responds to appeal for help from hurricane-devastated Honduras by donating
money for equipment purchase.
Distinguished Service Award is given to the Christian Science Monitor.
Undergraduates are also invited to submit papers for the James W.
Markham Award Competition.
Mary A. Gardner Scholarship is awarded (since 1993-94 this award has been
given by AEJMCs central authority).
Distinguished Service Award is given to Wilbur Schramm.
Secretary announces the gift of a short-wave radio (a $200 value) to one who
recruits the most new members.
Communication Bulletin adopts a new format.
celebrates 30 years of existence at AEJMCs Anaheim convention.
ICD's home page is created.
International Newswriting Contest is launched.
First ICD membership census and first communication journal survey are conducted.
ICD has nearly 400 members with about 75 being overseas.
The International Scholar of the 20th Century Award is
presented posthomously to Dr. Wilbur Schramm. The plaque was sent to
The International Communication Bulletin
adopts a journal format.
Distinguished Service Award goes to the Committee to Protect Journalists. ICDs
listserv was created.