History 355: The Age of Revolution, 1760-1840
Professor Terry Bouton
722 Administration Bldg.
Office Hours: Wed., 2:30-3:30pm, 6:00pm-7:00pm and Friday by appointment
(It is always best to email before you plan to come to office hours so I can block out time for you. I typically schedule meetings with students and advisees during office hours, so it's best to contact me before you plan to arrive to make certain I'm available.)
Course Webpage: http://userpages.umbc.edu/~bouton/RebelsRev/Revolutions2013.htm
*I would advise bookmarking this page
since it has links to all the documents and assignments*
Course Meeting Place: Information Technology 231
Course Meeting Time: Wed. 1:00PM – 2:15PM
This course will examine the revolutions that the spread across the Atlantic World from the mid-18th to the mid-19th century, a period some have called the “Age of Revolutions.” The primary focus will be exploring the “successful” revolutions of the era: the rebellion of the thirteen British American colonies, the internal revolution within France, the independence movement that wound up ending slavery in the French island of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), and the numerous wars of independence in Latin America. Given the breadth of topics, the objective is not to gain an exhaustive understanding of any one revolution, but rather to explore the connections between them all. To do this we will scrutinize the revolutions using the same set of analytical categories for each one: 1) the revolution’s causes; 2) the process by which the revolution unfolded; 3) its internal conflicts; 4) the ideologies guiding the revolution and how they found expression in it in the form of new governments and laws; 5) the effect of warfare on the course of the revolution; 6) the emergence of counter-revolutions against the main revolution, either those that openly opposed the revolution (Loyalists or Royalists) or those within the revolutionary coalition who want to scale back the revolution; and 7) the revolution’s outcome: the changes it brought and an assessment of its winners and losers. We will use these categories to explore a range of questions: In what ways were the revolutions similar? Did they share common causes, trajectories, ideals, and outcomes? How revolutionary was each revolution in terms opening up rights and freedoms and shifting power to “the people”? What changes did they bring politically, economically, socially, and in terms of class, race, and gender? Whose position improved? Whose did not? What made some revolutions more successful than others? Why did each revolution seem to become increasingly revolutionary (and often more democratic) as they progressed? Why did each revolution then end with rights and powers being scaled back from what could be called their democratic high point? To what extent were these diverse revolutions independent events? How much did they inspire one another? To what extent are these revolutions similar enough to merit the name “Age of Revolution”? Or were these revolutions too dissimilar to be considered part of a single revolutionary age?
The course will be lecture, classroom discussion, near-weekly Blackboard assignments, and a 7-page paper. Lectures will form the core of the material on which students will be tested. Discussions as well as the Blackboard postings will be based on readings of books and documents posted online. The paper will involve an investigation of an aspect of one of the revolutions we are studying.
The following books will be available for purchase at the campus bookstore:
1) Ray Raphael, Alfred F. Young, Gary Nash, eds., Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation (Vintage) [Paperback] ISBN-10: 0307455998 | ISBN-13: 978-0307455994
2) William Doyle, The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction [Paperback] Oxford University Press, ISBN-10: 0192853961 | ISBN-13: 978-0192853967
3) Lynn Hunt, ed., The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief Documentary History, Bedford St. Martins, ISBN-13: 978-0-312-10802-1
4) Laurent Dubois, John D. Garrigus, eds., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents, Bedford St. Martins, ISBN-13: 978-0-312-41501-3
5) John Lynch, Simon Bolivar: A Life (Paperback), Yale University Press, ISBN-13: 978-0300126044
All of these books are (or will be) available at the campus bookstore (except perhaps the Graham book, of which there are plenty of used copies available through internet book sellers. When possible, I have also put a copy of the books on 3-day reserve at the library.
IMPORTANT: The campus bookstore usually only keeps books in stock for the first half of the semester. Consequently, you need to purchase your books early in the semester and, preferably, at the start of the course. I will not accept “the bookstore ran out” as an excuse for missed reading assignments.
(I reserve the right to make changes to the requirements or to the schedule.)
the end of the semester:
360-400 points will be an A
320-359 points will be a B
280-319 points will be a C
240-279 points will be a D
Below 240 points will be an F
Both the midterm and the final exams will be composed of an essay section and a series of identifications (define and explain the significance of various names, events, places, ideas, etc., drawn from lectures and readings). For the final examination, the identification portion will NOT be cumulative; the essay portion will be somewhat cumulative, but will emphasize material from the second half of the course. Both exams are closed books, closed notes.
Each student will write a seven-page, double-spaced, normal-margined, normal-fonted, non-first draft, non-plagiarized paper comparing and contrasting the French and Haitian revolutions using the documents in Hunt, ed., The French Revolution and Human Rights and Dubois and Garrigus, eds., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804. The paper will present a THESIS and work to develop and prove that thesis using specific examples and quotes from the PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS contained in these two books. That thesis will be an answer to the following question: Which revolution---the French or the Haitian--was more revolutionary? Your paper will make an argument for one or the other and build the case by COMPARING AND CONTRASTING the two revolutions using specific EVIDENCE from the documents. You do not need outside sources. I want you to build your case using only evidence from the documents in these two books. Of course, you will need to explain what you mean by “revolutionary” and how you are measuring each revolution for revolutionary-ness (are you looking at the high points? Ideals? Objectives? End results? Amount of overall change from start to finish? Etc.). Don’t just talk about the revolution you think is more revolutionary; you need to discuss and present evidence from both revolutions (and both books). You must support whatever points you make with specific examples and quotes from the two books of documents. (Is it clear yet that I am requiring you to provide specific evidence from both of the books to support your points? If not, then let me tell you that you must attempt to prove your points with quotes and specific examples from the primary source documents in the two books). I will provide additional guidelines, suggestions, and advice later in the semester. The paper is due on the last day of class (Friday, May 10).
The grade for reading discussion will depend on the quality of your posts to the Blackboard Discussion Board. There will be ELEVEN posting assignments throughout the semester; at the end of the semester I will count your highest TEN postings (meaning I will drop the lowest grade). Each posting will answer a specific question based on the material being read for that particular assignment. I have listed the questions below in the schedule and I will also post them on Blackboard. For each posting, students will make an argument that they will support using SPECIFIC EXAMPLES and QUOTATIONS from the reading. To receive a high grade, you must use quotations and direct citations from the book (when appropriate) AND include the page number where you got the example or quote (you can put the page numbers after the quote or citation). I will be looking to make sure that you use quotations and examples from THROUGHOUT the reading and not just from a few pages at the beginning or end of the book. Think of the postings as mini-papers of about a page of single-spaced text. Each posting will be worth ten points.
Remember to ANSWER the QUESTION rather than just reporting what the reading said. These are analytical essays designed to prove an argument; they are NOT "book reports." If you simply recount what the chapters of the book said or summarize the book’s narrative, you will not get a good grade. You need to make an argument that answers the question. I do not care what argument you make. There are numerous ways to answer the questions and many different arguments that will earn you an A essay. But to earn that A (or even a B), you’ll need to MAKE AN ARGUMENT that ANSWERS THE QUESTION.
I grade these postings based on the quality of your reading (as evidenced by the examples and quotes you use) and your writing. One of my main goals in these assignments is to improve your skill in writing analytical essays. I take the postings VERY seriously, as should you. The best answers will be clearly written and logically structured. They will begin with a brief introductory paragraph that briefly reveals your answer to the question (i.e. spells out your thesis) and lets me know what to expect from the subsequent paragraphs. I will grade your essay based on the how well it succeeds in the elements of writing: making a clear thesis statement; organizing ideas into coherent paragraphs that each make a SINGLE argument; stating each paragraph’s argument in a STRONG TOPIC SENTENCE that BEGINS the paragraph; developing the paragraph’s argument with explanation and evidence; making effective use of evidence by ensuring that specific examples and quotations work to prove the argument the paragraph is trying to make—and, when the evidence is not entirely clear, explaining how the quotes and examples make your point.
NOTE: To receive full credit, you must make your posting by 12:00pm on the days listed below (class begins at 1:00pm). If you do not finish your posting by class time, do not cut class to submit a posting; simply submit it after class. I will deduct DOUBLE the number of late points for any posting submitted during the time that the class meets (all your submissions to Blackboard are date and time stamped, so I will know when you wrote and submitted them).
IMPORTANT: I require everyone to save a personal copy of all of their discussion postings (as well as the papers) on their home computer, thumb drive, cd, or whatever storage device they choose.
IMPORTANT: Blackboard is occasionally buggy. I HIGHLY suggest that you type out your response with a word processing program and then cut and paste it into Blackboard rather than the other way around. If you have a problem with Blackboard, it is your responsibility to ensure that I receive a copy of your posting by the deadline. DO NOT automatically email me a copy of every posting. ONLY email postings in the event of a Blackboard emergency.
enrolled in this course must have an active email account and access to the internet. HIST 355 uses Blackboard online software. This
means that you will have online access to course materials 24 hours a day, 7
days a week. Most assignments will be submitted online at the Blackboard
course website. As a UMBC student, you have a personal email account and access
to the internet and through the many on-campus computer
labs (locations, hours, etc.). You can also access Blackboard off
campus through a personal account or from the UMBC dial-up.
Getting started on Blackboard: Your registration with the UMBC Registrar for HIST 355 will make you eligible to enroll in Blackboard. To gain entrance to discussion boards and course material, you MUST enroll in the online version of HIST 355 on the course Blackboard site in order to have full access. BEFORE you do anything else, enroll in the course online at: http://blackboard.umbc.edu.
I expect students enrolled in this course to abide by the UMBC Code of Student Conduct for Academic Integrity (http://www.umbc.edu/sjp/articles/code.html). If you are unclear about what plagiarism is, take a look at the Indiana University website: Plagiarism: What It Is and How to Recognize and Avoid It (http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml).
By enrolling in this course, each student assumes the responsibilities of an active participant in UMBC's scholarly community in which everyone's academic work and behavior are held to the highest standards of honesty. Cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, and helping others to commit these acts are all forms of academic dishonesty, and they are wrong. Academic misconduct could result in disciplinary action that may include, but is not limited to, suspension or dismissal. To read the full Student Academic Conduct Policy, consult the UMBC Student Handbook, the Faculty Handbook, or the UMBC Policies section of the UMBC Directory.
I show no mercy toward cheaters. If you are caught cheating on any test or assignment, you will receive a zero for that grade and I will submit your name to the proper disciplinary authority. Rest assured that I will do all I can to see that those disciplinary bodies take the strongest possible action against anyone who cheats. At the very least, you will probably fail the course. Egregious cases of plagiarism will result in dismissal from the University. Potential cheaters: you have been warned.
Schedule of Lectures, Exams, and Assignments
(You will be informed of changes to lecture topics, assignments, and due dates)
Revolution #1: The American Revolution
Wed., Jan. 30: Introduction: What was the Age of Revolutions? How will we study these different revolutions?
Fri., Feb. 1: The American Revolution (Causes): What were the causes of the American Revolution?
Reading: Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 1, Revolutions, p. 1-113.
1: Question: What do the lives of these individuals tell us about
the role that ordinary Americans played in the origins of the American
Revolution and the hopes for change that they brought to the cause? Post your
response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Feb. 6: The American Revolution (Process of Revolution): How did the American Revolution unfold? What was the process that led to the break with Great Britain?
Fri., Feb. 8: The American Revolution (Internal
Conflicts): How did the process of revolution divide different
Americans? What were the sources of conflict? What did the different sides in
the conflict want?
Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 2, Wars, p. 115-211.
Post 2: Question: What do these essays reveal about how different groups of Americans experienced the War of Independence? Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Feb. 13: The American Revolution (Ideology): What ideals guided the American Revolution? How did different groups define those ideals? How did those ideals find expression during the Revolution? To what extent did the Revolutionary governments embody those ideals?
Fri., Feb. 15: The American Revolution (War): How did the experiences of the War of Independence shape the process of revolution?
Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 3, The Promise of the
Revolution, p. 213-303
Wed., Feb. 20: The American Revolution (Counter-Revolutions): Why did counter-revolutions develop against the revolutionary governments on the state and national level? Why did some of these counter-revolutions fail? How did an internal counter-revolution succeed?
Fri., Feb. 22: The American Revolution (Outcome: Winners and Losers): What were the end results of the American Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 3, The Promise of the
Revolution, p. 304-395.
Post 3: Question: What do these essay tell us about the role that ordinary Americans played in the origins of the American Revolution and the hopes for change that they brought to the cause? Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Revolution #2: The French Revolution
Wed., Feb. 27: The French Revolution (Causes): What were the causes of the French Revolution?
Fri., Mar. 1: The French Revolution (Process of Revolution): How did the French Revolution unfold? Why did it move from an attempt to reform the monarchy to the abolition of monarchy and the execution of the monarch and much of the nobility and aristocracy and the “terror”?
French Revolution, ALL
Post 4: Question: What broad comparisons can you make between the American Revolution and the French Revolution (with most of your focus on the French Revolution and the Doyle book)? Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Mar. 6: The
French Revolution (Internal Conflicts): How did the French Revolution divide the French citizenry? What were the sources of conflict?
What did the different sides in the conflict want?
Fri., Mar. 8: The French Revolution (Ideology): What ideals guided the French Revolution? How did those ideals find expression in France’s revolutionary governments?
ed., The French Revolution and Human Rights, 1-79
Post 5: Question: Using primarily the documents in sections 1 and 2, assess the difference the early stages of the French Revolution made by comparing the documents relating to the rights that the French enjoyed before 1789 (section 1) with the documents relating to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (section 2). Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Mar. 13: The French Revolution (War): How did the outbreak of war, both external and civil shape the course of the French Revolution?
Fri., Mar. 15: The French Revolution (Counter-Revolutions): Why did counter-revolutions develop in France? Why did the first set of counter-revolutions fail? How did an internal counter-revolution led by Napoleon succeed?
ed., The French Revolution and Human Rights, 80-139
Post 6: Question: Use the documents in sections 3 to assess how revolutionary the French Revolution was regarding issues of citizenship and rights. Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Mar. 20: SPRING BREAK
Fri., Mar. 22: SPRING BREAK
Wed., Mar. 27: The French Revolution (Outcome: Winners and Losers): What were the end results of the French Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
Click here for the Midterm Exam Study Guide
Revolution #3: The Haitian Revolution
Wed., Apr. 3: The Haitian Revolution (Causes and Process of Revolution): What were the causes of the Haitian Revolution? How did it transform from demands for free trade into a revolution that ended slavery?
Fri., Apr. 5: The Haitian Revolution (War and Internal Conflicts): How did existing divisions in Saint-Domingue shape its revolution? How did the revolution create new divisions and conflicts?
Reading: Dubois and Garrigus, eds., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804, 1-132
Post 7: Question: Use the documents in sections 1-3 (p. 49-132) to assess the objectives of the insurgents in Saint-Domingue and the strategies they used to obtain those objectives. Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Apr. 10: The Haitian Revolution (Ideology): What ideals guided the Haitian Revolution? How did those ideals find expression in the island’s revolutionary governments?
Fri., Apr. 12: The Haitian Revolution (Counter-Revolutions): Why did a series of counter-revolutions emerge in Saint-Domingue? Why did some of these fail? How did an internal counter-revolution succeed in scaling back the revolution?
Reading: Dubois and Garrigus, eds., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804, 133-199
Post 8: Question: Use the documents in sections 4-5 (p. 133-199) to assess the rights and position of slaves as a result of the Haitian Revolution. In terms of rights and position, what was the high point of the Haitian Revolution? How revolutionary was the Haitian Revolution at its conclusion? Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Apr. 17: The Haitian Revolution (Outcome: Winners and Losers): What were the end results of the Haitian Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
Revolution #4: Revolutions in Latin American
Fri., Apr. 19: Latin American Revolutions (Causes and Process of Revolution): What were the causes of the Latin American Revolutions? How did calls for free trade and rights for Creoles turn into a series of independence movements?
Reading: Lynch, Simon Bolivar, 1-90
Post 9: Question: What caused the Latin American Revolutions? Why did Simon Bolivar get involved? How did his views of the revolution change as the struggle intensified? Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., Apr. 24: Latin American Revolutions (Internal Conflicts): How did existing divisions in Latin America influence the revolutions in Latin America? How did the revolutions create new divisions?
Fri., Apr. 26: Latin American Revolutions (War): How did the wars of independence in Latin America shape the course of the revolutions?
Reading: Lynch, Simon Bolivar, 91-196
Post 10: Question: How did the long and brutal war of independence change the nature of the Latin American revolutions? Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., May 1: Latin American Revolutions (Counter-Revolutions): Why did counter revolutions emerge in Latin America? Why did some fail and others succeed?
Fri., May 3: Latin American Revolutions (Ideology)?: What ideologies guided the Latin American Revolutions? How did those ideologies find expression?
Reading: Lynch, Simon Bolivar, 197-304
Post 11: Question: What were the possibilities and limits of the Latin American Revolutions in terms of providing rights and freedoms for the various peoples of Latin America? Post your response to the Discussion Board by 12:00pm.
Wed., May 8: Latin American Revolutions (Outcome: Winners and Losers): What were the end results of the Latin American Revolutions? Who were the winners and losers?
Fri., May 10: The Age of Revolution (Reverberations and Other Revolutions that Failed): How far did the wave of revolution spread across the Atlantic? Why did numerous other revolutions and uprisings in the era fail?
SUBMIT AN ELECTRONIC COPY OF YOUR PAPER TO SAFEASSIGN ON BLACKBOARD.
DO NOT SUBMIT A PAPER COPY.