History 355B
Native American History, Pre-Contact-Present
Fall 2008

Terry Bouton
Associate Professor of History
Phone: 410-455-2056
Email: bouton[at]umbc.edu
Office: 722 Administration Bldg.
Office Hours: Wed.  and by appointment

Course Webpage: http://research.umbc.edu/~bouton/NativeAmerican/NativeAmerican08.htm
Course Meeting Place: ACIV006 (Academic IV, Room 006)
Course Meeting Time: Wednesday/Friday 2:30-3:45

Course Description:
History 355B is a survey of Native American history from before contact with Europeans to the present.  The course will emphasize the different ways that Indian societies confronted the “Invasion of America” and explore how Indian peoples resisted and adapted to the dramatic changes of the past four centuries.

The final grade breaks down as follows:

            MIDTERM EXAM #1:        100 pts. (20% of your total grade)
            MIDTERM EXAM #2:        100 pts. (20% of your total grade)
            FINAL EXAM:                      100 pts. (20% of your total grade)
            PAPER:                                  100 pts. (20% of your total grade)
            READING DISCUSSION:   100 pts. (20% of your total grade)
            TOTAL GRADE:                   500 pts.

1) Miguel Leon-Portillo and J. Jorge Klor de Alva, The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0807055007
2) James E. Seaver, ed. A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 9780806127170
3) Peter Nabokov, ed., Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 978-0803283510
4) Mary Crow Dog, Lakota Woman, Harper Perennial, ISBN-13 978-0060973896

: The campus bookstore usually only keeps books in stock for the first half of the semester.  Consequently, you need to purchase your books early in the semester and, preferably, at the start of the course.  I will not accept “the bookstore ran out” as an excuse for missed reading assignments.

You may also want to buy DVD or VHS copies of the films Black Robe and Smoke Signals, which can be purchased inexpensively through various online sellers. You can also obtain a copy of Black Robe and Smoke Signals through Netflix, Blockbuster, and at many public libraries.

I reserve the right to make changes to the requirements or to the schedule.


1) Examinations:
The midterm exams and the final exam will be composed of an essay section and a series of identifications (define and explain the significance of various names, events, places, ideas, etc., drawn from lectures and readings).  The identification portions of the exams will NOT be cumulative; the essay portions will be somewhat cumulative, but will emphasize material from the most recent section of the course.  The essay for the final exam will be cumulative.  All exams are closed books, closed notes unless otherwise specified.

Make-up Policy: I will offer make-up examinations for the midterms and the final examination, but only if arrangements for a make-up are made by midnight the day the examination is scheduled. If you miss the midterm or final and have not notified me in advance, you may not take a makeup and will earn 0 points for the missed exam. Warning: I am strict about this policy.

Midterm Examination # 1 will be held in class on Fri., Sept. 25
Midterm Examination # 2 will be held in class on Fri., Oct. 31

The Final Examination will be held in class on Wed., Dec. 17 from 1:00pm-3:00pm

2) Paper:
Students will be required to write a SEVEN-PAGE paper based on Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior, DUE: In my mailbox by 11:00am on Tuesday, Oct. 28 

Paper Topic:  The memoir of the Crow warrior Two Leggings provides a unique window into the culture of the plains Indians during the 19th century.  Through Two Leggings’ life (the things that happen to him, his take on events) we can gain some understanding of the values and principles that underlay Crow society.  What were the primary ideals and principles guiding this society?  Craft a SEVEN-PAGE paper that presents the FIVE main spiritual/social rules or principles governing Crow society. 

The rules/principles you choose are entirely up to you.  You will not be graded on whether you selected the “correct” five areas.  There are NOT five “right” answers.  In selecting your “rules,” it might be helpful to think about these as the Five Commandments of Crow society (“Thou Shalt…”).  Your rules might begin: “Crow warriors were supposed to….”; “Crow society demanded that men…”; “Crow society required women to play this role”; “Crow society prohibited….”  Be as creative as you want.  But you must identify rules that can be supported with evidence from Two-Leggings’ memoir.

In deciding what the rules are, you should pay attention to the things that Two Leggings says and does.  For example, what does Two Leggings consider to be proper behavior?  What was improper behavior?  Does Two Leggings follow the rules?  What happens when he does what he is supposed to do? What happens when he breaks the rules?  How does Two Leggings explain his success/failure?  What was a Crow warrior supposed to do to be successful? For that matter, what did “success” mean in Crow society?  What did “failure” mean?

Once you have identified your five rules, you must PROVE each principle with quotes and specific examples from the book Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior (TWO LEGGINGS’ ACTUAL WORDS, NOT THE EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION OR CHAPTER INTRODUCTIONS).  When you quote Two Leggings or use specific examples from the book, you must site the page number in the text of your paper.  [i.e., After one unsuccessful raid, Two-Leggings asserted that they returned with no horses because “we didn’t have strong medicine.” (p. 245)]  Keep in mind that you will need several examples to support each argument you make. 

For this paper you must also do the following: 1) Underline the thesis statement; 2) Develop strong topic sentences that specify the argument each paragraph is making; 3) Organize each paragraph around a single coherent idea; 4) Use specific evidence to support each argument; and 5) Explain how this evidence supports the argument. 

NOTE: Your grade will depend, not simply on the rules you identify and the clarity of your prose, but on your ability to provide many examples and quotes that support your case.  Generally speaking, the more evidence you provide, the better your grade will be.  Let this be very clear: in grading the paper, I will pay particularly attention to the EVIDENCE you provide to support your points.  If you do not provide SPECIFIC evidence -- even if you produce an otherwise magnificently written essay -- the best grade you can hope to achieve will be a “C.”

Papers must be TYPED (normal double spacing -- don’t adjust the margins to turn a three page paper into a seven pager).  Your paper must also be SPELL CHECKED AND PROOFREAD.  Handwritten papers will be dropped one letter grade.

Late work will be penalized as follows:
    *Same day, after I leave the classroom -- 1/3 letter grade off
    *The following class period -- an additional 1/3 letter grade off
    *Every day thereafter an additional 2/3 letter grade off
Penalties cease when the grade reaches "F" (50 points).  Please note that it is in your best interest to submit a paper even if it is a "guaranteed F."  Having a score of 50 points will be substantially less detrimental to your final grade than a score of zero.

3) Blackboard Reading Discussion:
The grade for reading discussion will depend on the quality of your posts to the Blackboard Discussion Board, which I will treat as short papers. There will be TEN posting assignments throughout the semester, each worth ten points.  I will assign each student to a discussion group and they will post to their group’s folder on Blackboard.  Each posting will answer a specific question based on the material being read for that particular assignment.  I have listed the questions below in the schedule.  I will also post them on Blackboard.  Your posting will be graded based on the quantity and quality of your response.  Each posting must use SPECIFIC EXAMPLES and QUOTATIONS from the reading to support your argument and, when appropriate, provide PAGE NUMBERS from the books.  I will be looking to make sure that your quotations come from THROUGHOUT the reading and not just from a few pages at the beginning or end of the book.  Think of the postings as mini-papers of about a page of single-spaced text. Remember to ANSWER the QUESTION rather than just reporting what the reading said.  These are analytical essays designed to prove an argument, not "book reports." Make sure you proofread your posts before you submit them! 

NOTE: To receive full credit, you must make your posting by on the days listed below by 9:30AM.  If you do not finish your posting by class time, DO NOT cut class to submit a posting; simply submit it after class.  I will deduct DOUBLE the number of late points for any posting submitted during the time the class meets.

IMPORTANT: I require everyone to save a personal copy of all of their discussion postings on their home computer, floppy disk, or whatever other storage device they have.  Since Blackboard is occasionally buggy, I HIGHLY suggest that you type out your response with a word processing program and then cut and paste your response into Blackboard. If you have a problem with Blackboard, it is your responsibility to ensure that I receive a copy of your posting by the deadline.  DO NOT automatically email me a copy of every posting.  ONLY email postings in the event of a Blackboard emergency. 


Warning: I consider Blackboard Reading discussion to be one of the most important parts of the course. DO NOT take these assignments lightly. If you put effort into the postings, they are one of the surest ways to boost your grade. If you blow them off, they can kill your grade and result in you failing the course—no matter how well you do on the exams. When I assign final grades at the end of the semester, I always use postings to decide whether to bump up the grades of those on the borderlines. If you have diligently completed your postings, I usually will bump your grade. If you have failed to submit postings or continually submit them late, I WILL NOT BUMP YOUR GRADE even if you are one or two points short of the next grade level.

Getting started on Blackboard: Blackboard is relatively easy to use and will allow you to have access to course materials 24 hours a day, 7 days a week through the Internet.  If you have registered for the course, you should automatically be registered on Blackboard. As a UMBC student, you have a personal email account and access to the Internet and through the school's many on-campus computer labs.  You can also access Blackboard off campus through a personal account or from the UMBC dial-up.  BEFORE you do anything else, check to see if you are enrolled in the course by going to http://blackboard.umbc.edu.  If you have been automatically registered, take some time to explore the Blackboard site for the course.  If Blackboard indicates that you are not registered, follow the directions at the main Blackboard site for new users.


I will send all email messages to your UMBC email account
(yourusername@umbc.edu). If you do not usually check this account, have messages forwarded to your preferred email address (such as aol, hotmail, etc.). For help with this procedure, or if you have other questions about UMBC's Office of Information Technology services visit the OIT helpsite at http://www.umbc.edu/oit/. Helpdesk personnel in the on-campus computer labs can help with most questions. The helpdesk phone number is 410-455-3838.

Random Rules:
TURN OFF CELL PHONES, BEEPERS, WATCH ALARMS, or any other device that might disturb the class.  I will make examples of those who violate this rule (for example, if your phone rings, I will take the call).  2) On test days, students will not wear hats of any kind.  If you come to class wearing a hat, you will be asked to remove it.  3) On test days, if you leave the room for any reason, I will consider your test to be completed.  In other words, make your trip to the restroom before the test begins. If you need a drink, bring one; if you have a cold, bring Kleenex.

Academic Integrity:
By enrolling in this course, each student assumes the responsibilities of an active participant in UMBC's scholarly community in which everyone's academic work and behavior are held to the highest standards of honesty. Cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, and helping others to commit these acts are all forms of academic dishonesty, and they are wrong.  Academic misconduct could result in disciplinary action that may include, but is not limited to, suspension or dismissal.  To read the full Student Academic Conduct Policy, consult the UMBC Student Handbook, the Faculty Handbook, or the UMBC Policies section of the UMBC Directory. To read the policy online, see: http://www.umbc.edu/integrity/.

I show no mercy toward cheaters.  If you are caught cheating on any test or assignment, you will receive a zero for that grade and I will submit your name to the proper disciplinary authority.  Rest assured that I will do all I can to see that those disciplinary bodies take the strongest possible action against anyone who cheats.  Potential cheaters: you have been warned. 

To ensure authenticity of assignments, students will submit their paper to Turnitin.com, a web-based service that checks papers against everything on the internet as well as the papers in their databanks.  Unfortunately, every semester Turnitin.com catches at least one student who plagiarized some or all of a paper they submitted to one of my courses. That said, I see Turnitin.com less as a punitive device than as a measure to ensure that those who complete assignments honestly do not have their hard work debased by lowlife cheaters.   
If you haven't used Turnitin.com before, go to the main turnitin.com page and click on "New Users" in the top left corner. Turnitin.com will walk you through the rest of the registration process and give detailed instructions on how to submit your paper.

If you have already registered for Turnitin.com, simply login using your email and password.

In either case you will need the course ID# and Password. They are as follows:

COURSE PASSWORD: [The Password is available on Blackboard; I will also give it out in class]

(NOTE: The password is case sensitive. Also, this password is different from the password you will select to register for Turnitin.com. Use a password of your own choosing when you initially register as a new user)

Here's a link to Turnitin.com: http://www.turnitin.com/index.html

Schedule of Lectures, Exams, Readings, Discussions, and Assignments 

Part I: The Invasion of America

Week 1:

Wed. Aug. 27:         Introduction


                               The Americas Before Columbus: What did the Americas look like in 1492?  How had Native American societies evolved in the centuries before Columbus arrived?


Fri., Aug. 29:          Indian Cultures Before Contact: What were Native American cultures like in 1492? What values did they tend to share? 


                         Post Discussion by 10:30AM Reading: Iroquois Constitution.  Question: What does the "constitution" of the League of the Iroquois reveal about the culture and politics of this Native American society?


Week 2:

Wed., Sept. 3:        Spaniards and Indians: What were relations like between the Spanish and the Indian peoples they encountered?


Fri., Sept. 5:           The Pueblo Revolt: Why did Pueblo Indians revolt against Spanish rule in 1680?  What does their revolt tell us about Indian/Spanish relations and the transformation brought about by contact? 


                        Reading: Broken Spears, 1-102

Week 3:

Wed., Sept. 10:        The Algonquin and French Middle Ground: What was the “middle ground”?  Why did it develop? And how did it work? 


Fri., Sept. 12:          Limits of the Middle Ground: What tensions underlay the Indian and French “middle ground”?  

Reading: Broken Spears, 103-182

                         Post Discussion by 10:30AM Broken Spears, ALL. Question: How did a handful of Spanish soldiers defeat one of the great world powers of the day?


Week 4:

Wed., Sept. 17:       Powhatan and John Smith: What were relations like between the Powhatans and the English settlers at Jamestown?  Why did they deteriorate?            


Fri., Sept. 19:          The First Thanksgiving and Beyond: How did the "first thanksgiving" come to pass? Why did peace in New England give way to a series of long and bitter wars?


                        VIEW BEFORE CLASS: Movie, Black Robe (101 min.) (on reserve in the library)

Post Discussion by 10:30AM for film Black RobeQuestion: How does the film portray the Algonquin and French “middle ground”? What examples did you see of the “middle ground”? What examples did you see that reveal the shortcomings of the “middle ground”?


Week 5:

Wed., Sept. 24:      European Dominance: What factors allowed most European powers to dominate most of the Indian peoples they encountered?


                          Post Discussion by 10:30AM for Metacom’s War and Indians in New EnglandQuestion: What do these documents tell us about the causes of Metacom’s War and the effect it had on Indian-English relations?   


Fri., Sept. 26:         MIDTERM EXAMINATION I [Click Here for the Study Guide for the First Midterm Exam]


 Part II: Indians and the New Nation


Week 6:

Wed., Oct. 1:         The Indians' American Revolution: What role did Native peoples play in the so-called “French and Indian War” and the American War for Independence? How did these wars affect Indian societies?


Fri., Oct. 3:             The Plan of Civilization and Indian life in Post-Revolution America: How did the new United States attempt to reshape Indian societies?  What were the results of the "Plan of Civilization"?


                        Reading: A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison, 46-160 (in bookstore edition)

You can also access the Narrative for free online.  Here are several locations:


Post Discussion by 10:30AM for A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison: What was life like as a captive for Mary Jemison? Why do you think she stayed among the Seneca?  What do her experiences during and after the American Revolution tell us about life for Native Americans in the New Republic?


 Week 7:

Wed., Oct. 8:          Resisting the New Order: How did Indians attempt to resist the changes the US was trying to impose on Indian peoples? What did these efforts reveal about the possibilities and limits of resisting this new order?      


Fri., Oct. 10:           Accommodation and Removal: Why did some Indian peoples such as the Seneca and Cherokee accept the US-imposed changes? What were the possibilities and limits of accommodating to this new order?


                         Reading: Two Leggings: the Making of Crow Warrior, 1-100


Week 8:

Wed., Oct. 15:       How the West was Won…and Then Lost: How did the arrival of horses and European disease lead to the rise of peoples like the Sioux and Crow? How did those groups lose ground before the US and its "peace policy"?


Fri., Oct. 17:            Documentary Film: The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy


                         Reading: Two Leggings: the Making of Crow Warrior, 101-197

Post Discussion by 10:30AM for Two LeggingsQuestion: What does Two Leggings memoir reveal about the warrior culture of the Crow?
 [You can use this post as an initial attempt to develop a thesis for the Two Leggings paper]                                  


Week 9:

Wed., Oct. 22:       The Crow and Accommodation: How did the warrior culture of the Crow operate? Why did the Crow follow the Peace Policy and what were the results for the Crow? 


Fri., Oct. 24:          Documentary Film on the Plains Indians


                         PAPER ON TWO LEGGINGS DUE: In my mailbox by 11:00am on Tuesday, Oct. 28                                    


Week 10:

Wed., Oct. 29:        The Sioux and Resistance: How did the Sioux attempt to resist the Peace Policy? What were the results of their resistance? What was the Ghost Dance and why did it reveal about the situation facing the Native peoples of the west?


Fri., Oct. 31:           MIDTERM EXAMINATION II: [Click Here for Study Guide]      


Part III: The Making of Modern Native America, 1890-Present

Week 11:

Wed., Nov. 5:        "Friends of the Indian": Who were the reformers who called themselves the "Friends of the Indian" and how did they try to transform Native peoples?  


Fri., Nov. 7:             Ishi and the Failures of Assimilation: Who was Ishi and what does his story tell us about the shortcomings of the US policy of assimilation?


                        VIEW BEFORE CLASS: Documentary Film, Ishi, The Last Yahi (60 min.) (On Reserve at the library)          


                        Reading: Lakota Woman, 3-127

Week 12:

Wed., Nov. 12:      The Indian's New Deal and WWII: How did the New Deal and WWII transform the lives of Native peoples?


Fri., Nov. 14:          Cold War Indian Policy: How did the Cold War change US Indian policy and the lives of Native peoples?


                         Reading: Lakota Woman, 128-263


                         Post Discussion by 10:30AM for Lakota Woman, ALL.  Question: Based on Mary Crow Dog’s memoir, what were the primary causes of Indian’s civil rights movement? In what ways did AIM succeed? Why do you think it succeeded? How did it fall short? Why do you think it fell short?                      


Week 13:

Wed., Nov. 19:      The Indian Civil Rights Movement: Why did many Native Americans begin to protest for civil rights during the 1960s and 70s? How effective were their efforts?


Fri., Nov. 21:         Contemporary Life on the Reservation:

                              VIEW IN CLASS: Documentary Film, Super Chief (75 min.)


                               VIEW BEFORE CLASS: Film, Smoke Signals (89 min.)

Post Discussion by SUNDAY, Nov. 22, 9:30AM: Based on your viewing of the films Super Chief and Smoke Signals, how has life on the reservation changed since the 1960s? What old problems have endured? What new challenges and opportunities have emerged?


Week 14:

Wed., Nov. 26:      Discussion of Contemporary Native American Issues


                               Reading: Become an authority on some aspect of contemporary Native American society, politics, or culture. Possible topics include: tribal recognition, the missing trust fund, health, education, tribal governments, casinos, sports mascots, pow wows, tribal artifacts, burial grounds, tribal lands (pollution of, jurisdiction over, hunting and fishing rights on), religious freedom, Native American film, music, or literature, etc.  You need THREE different sources (journal or newspaper articles, websites, etc) and you will need to include those sources in your posting. At least one of your sources must be an in-depth scholarly or journalistic book/article. You will present you findings to the class.  This won't be a formal presentation; I will simply call on each of you to talk briefly about your topic.


                               Post Discussion by 10:30AM: Report on your topic. Be sure to cover all the relevant who, what, where, why, and how factors. You should also reflect on the relationship between the issue you are investigating and the history we have discussed this semester. Be sure to include specific references to the THREE sources you used.


Fri., Nov. 28:          THANKSGIVING BREAK


Week 15:

Wed., Dec. 3:          Discussion of Contemporary Native American Issues


Fri., Dec. 5:             Native American History in Perspective


                         BEFORE CLASS ON FRI., Dec. 5: Visit the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C.  You may also want to have a meal in the museum cafeteria, which serves a variety of traditional indigenous fare from across the Americas. The food is very good (especially for a museum), but a bit pricey.


                        Website: http://www.nmai.si.edu/

                        Directions and Hours: http://www.nmai.si.edu/subpage.cfm?subpage=dc&second=visitor&third=hours

Post Discussion by 10:30AM: Review of National Museum of the American Indian.  Question: Although the NMAI is not specifically a history museum, assess the museum’s presentation of Native American history. In what respects did the museum do a good job of capturing Native American history? What aspects of Indian history are missing or under-represented? Why do you think Native American history is presented in this way?