John Mashey on RISC/CISC

WARNING: you may want to print this one to read it...
(from preceding discussion):
:Anyway, it is not a fair comparison.  Not by a long stretch.  Let's see
:how the Nth generation SPARC, MIPS, and 88K's do (assuming they last)
:compared to some new design from scratch.

Well, there is baggage and there is BAGGAGE.
One must be careful to distinguish between ARCHITECTURE and IMPLEMENTATION:
	a) Architectures persist longer than implementations, especially
	user-level Instruction-Set Architecture.
	b) The first member of an architecture family is usually designed
	with the current implementation constraints in mind, and if you're
	lucky, software people had some input.
	c) If you're really lucky, you anticipate 5-10 years of technology
	trends, and that modifies your idea of the ISA you commit to.
	d) It's pretty hard to delete anything from an ISA, except where:
		1) You can find that NO ONE uses a feature
			(the 68020 to 68030 deletions mentioned by someone
		2) You believe that you can trap and emulate the feature
		"fast enough".
			i.e., microVAX support for decimal ops,
			68040 support for transcendentals.

Now, one might claim that the i486 and 68040 are RISC implementations
of CISC architectures .... and I think there is some truth to this,
but I also think that it can confuse things badly:

Anyone who has studied the history of computer design knows that
high-performance designs have used many of the same techniques for years,
for all of the natural reasons, that is:
	a) They use as much pipelining as they can, in some cases, if this
	means a high gate-count, then so be it.
	b) They use caches (separate I & D if convenient).
	c) They use hardware, not micro-code for the simpler operations.
(For instance, look at the evolution of the S/360 products.
Recall that the 360/85 used caches, back around 1969, and within a few
years, so did any mainframe or supermini.)

So, what difference is there among machines if similar implementation
ideas are used?
A: there is a very specific set of characteristics shared by most
machines labeled RISCs, most of which are not shared by most CISCs.
The RISC characteristics:
	a) Are aimed at more performance from current compiler technology
	(i.e., enough registers).
	b) Are aimed at fast pipelining
		in a virtual-memory environment
		with the ability to still survive exceptions
		without inextricably increasing the number of gate delays
		(notice that I say gate delays, NOT just how many gates).

Even though various RISCs have made various decisions, most of them
have been very careful to omit those things that CPU designers have
found difficult and/or expensive to implement, and especially, things
that are painful, for relatively little gain.

I would claim, that even as RISCs evolve, they may have certain
baggage that they'd wish weren't there .... but not very much.  In
particular, there are a bunch of objective characteristics shared by
RISC ARCHITECTURES that clearly distinguish them from CISC

I'll give a few examples, followed by the detailed analysis:

	3a) Have 1 size of instruction in an instruction stream
	3b) And that size is 4 bytes
	3c) Have a handful (1-4) addressing modes) (* it is VERY
	hard to count these things; will discuss later).
	3d) Have NO indirect addressing in any form (i.e., where you need
	one memory access to get the address of another operand in memory)
	4a) Have NO operations that combine load/store with arithmetic,
	i.e., like add from memory, or add to memory.
	(note: this means especially avoiding operations that use the
	value of a load as input to an ALU operation, especially when
	that operation can cause an exception.  Loads/stores with
	address modification can often be OK as they don't have some of
	the bad effects)
	4b) Have no more than 1 memory-addressed operand per instruction
	5a) Do NOT support arbitrary alignment of data for loads/stores
	5b) Use an MMU for a data address no more than once per instruction
	6a) Have >= 5 bits per integer register specifier
	6b) Have >= 4 bits per FP register specifier
These rules provide a rather distinct dividing line among architectures,
and I think there are rather strong technical reasons for this, such
that there is one more interesting attribute: almost every architecture
whose first instance appeared on the market from 1986 onward obeys the
rules above .....
	Note that I didn't say anything about counting the number of
So, here's a table:
C: number of years since first implementation sold in this family
(or first thing which with this is binary compatible).
3a: # instruction sizes
3b: maximum instruction size in bytes
3c: number of distinct addressing modes for accessing data (not jumps)>
I didn't count register or
literal, but only ones that referenced memory, and I counted different
formats with different offset sizes separately.  This was hard work...
Also, even when a machine had different modes for register-relative and
PC_relative addressing, I counted them only once.
3d: indirect addressing: 0: no, 1: yes
4a: load/store combined with arithmetic: 0: no, 1:yes
4b: maximum number of memory operands
5a: unaligned addressing of memory references allowed in load/store,
	without specific instructions
	0: no never (MIPS, SPARC, etc)
	1: sometimes (as in RS/6000)
	2: just about any time
5b: maximum number of MMU uses for data operands in an instruction
6a: number of bits for integer register specifier
6b: number of bits for 64-bit or more FP register specifier,
	distinct from integer registers

Note that all of this are ARCHITECTURE issues, and it is usually quite
difficult to either delete a feature (3a-5b) or increase the number
of real registers (6a-6b) given an initial isntruction set design.
(yes, register renaming can help, but...)

Now: items 3a, 3b, and 3c are an indication of the decode complexity
	3d-5b hint at the ease or difficulty of pipelining, especially
	in the presence of virtual-memory requirements, and need to go
	fast while still taking exceptions sanely
	items 6a and 6b are more related to ability to take good advantage
	of current compilers.
	There are some other attributes that can be useful, but I couldn't
	imagine how to create metrics for them without being very subjective;
	for example "degree of sequential decode", "number of writebacks
	that you might want to do in the middle of an instruction, but can't,
	because you have to wait to make sure you see all of the instruction
	before committing any state, because the last part might cause a
	page fault,"  or "irregularity/assymetricness of register use",
	or "irregularity/complexity of instruction formats".  I'd love to
	use those, but just don't know how to measure them.
	Also, I'd be happy to hear corrections for some of these.

So, here's a table of 12 implementations of various architectures, one
per architecture, with the attributes above.  Just for fun, I'm going
to leave the architectures coded at first, although I'll identify them
later.  I'm going to draw a line between H1 and L4 (obviously, the
RISC-CISC Line), and also, at the head of each column, I'm going to
put a rule, which, in that column, most of the RISCs obey.  Any RISC
that does not obey it is marked with a +; any CISC that DOES obey it
is marked with a *.  So...

CPU	Age	3a 3b 3c 3d	4a 4b 5a 5b	6a 6b	# ODD
RULE	<6	=1 =4 <5 =0	=0 =1 <2 =1	>4 >3
A1	4	 1  4  1  0	 0  1  0  1	 8  3+	1
B1	5	 1  4  1  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	-
C1	2	 1  4  2  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	-
D1	2	 1  4  3  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  0+	1
E1	5	 1  4 10+ 0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	1
F1	5	 2+ 4  1  0	 0  1  0  1	 4+ 3+	3
G1	1	 1  4  4  0	 0  1  1  1	 5  5   -
H1	2	 1  4  4  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	-	RISC
L4	26	 4  8  2* 0*	 1  2  2  4	 4  2	2	CISC
M2	12	12 12 15  0*	 1  2  2  4	 3  3	1
N1	10	21 21 23  1	 1  2  2  4	 3  3	-
O3	11	11 22 44  1	 1  2  2  8	 4  3	-
P3	13	56 56 22  1	 1  6  2 24	 4  0	-

An interesting exercise is to analyze the ODD cases.
First, observe that of 12 architectures, in only 2 cases does an
architecture have an attribute that puts it on the wrong side of the line.
Of the RISCs:

-A1 is slightly unusual in having more integer registers, and less FP
than usual.  [Actually, slightly out of date, 29050 is different,
using integer register bank instead, I hear.]

-D1 is unusual in sharing integer and FP registers (that's what the
D1:6b == 0).

-E1 seems odd in having a large number of address modes.  I think most
of this is an artifact of the way that I counted, as this architecture
really only has a fundamentally small number of ways to create
addresses, but has several different-sized offsets and combinations,
but all within 1 4-byte instruction; I believe that it's addressing
mechanisms are fundamentally MUCH simpler than, for example, M2, or
especially N1, O3, or P3, but the specific number doesn't capture it
very well.

-F1 .... is not sold any more.

-H1 one might argue that this process has 2 sizes of instructions, but
I'd observe that at any point in the instruction stream, the
instructions are either 4-bytes long, or 8-bytes long, with the
setting done by a mode bit, i.e., not dynamically encoded in every

Of the processors called CISCs:

-L4 happens to be one in which you can tell the length of the
instruction from the first few bits, has a fairly regular instruction
decode, has relatively few addressing modes, no indirect addressing.
In fact, a big subset of its instructions are actually fairly
RISC-like, although another subset is very CISCy.

-M2 has a myriad of instruction formats, but fortunately avoided
indirect addressing, and actually, MOST of instructions only have 1
address, except for a small set of string operations with 2.  I.e., in
this case, the decode complexity may be high, but most instructions
cannot turn into multiple-memory-address-with-side-effects things.

-N1,O3, and P3 are actually fairly clean, orthogonal architectures, in
which most operations can consistently have operands in either memory
or registers, and there are relatively few weirdnesses of
special-cased uses of registers.  Unfortunately, they also have
indirect addressing, instruction formats whose very orthogonality
almost guarantees sequential decoding, where it's hard to even know
how long an instruction is until you parse each piece, and that may
have side-effects where you'd like to do a register write-back early,
but either:

	must wait until you see all of the instruction until you commit state
	must have "undo" shadow-registers
	must use instruction-continuation with fairly tricky exception
	handling to restore the state of the machine

It is also interesting to note that the original member of the family
to which O3 belongs was rather simpler in some of the critical areas,
with only 5 instruction sizes, of maximum size 10 bytes, and no
indirect addressing, and requiring alignment (i.e., it was a much more
RISC-like design, and it would be a fascinating speculation to know if
that extra complexity was useful in practice).  Now, here's the table
again, with the labels:

CPU	Age	3a 3b 3c 3d	4a 4b 5a 5b	6a 6b	# ODD
RULE	<6	=1 =4 <5 =0	=0 =1 <2 =1	>4 >3
A1	4	 1  4  1  0	 0  1  0  1	 8  3+	1	AMD 29K
B1	5	 1  4  1  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	-	R2000
C1	2	 1  4  2  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	-	SPARC
D1	2	 1  4  3  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  0+	1	MC88000
E1	5	 1  4 10+ 0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	1	HP PA
F1	5	 2+ 4  1  0	 0  1  0  1	 4+ 3+	3	IBM RT/PC
G1	1	 1  4  4  0	 0  1  1  1	 5  5   -	IBM RS/6000
H1	2	 1  4  4  0	 0  1  0  1	 5  4	-	Intel i860
L4	26	 4  8  2* 0*	 1  2  2  4	 4  2	2	IBM 3090
M2	12	12 12 15  0*	 1  2  2  4	 3  3	1	Intel i486
N1	10	21 21 23  1	 1  2  2  4	 3  3	-	NSC 32016
O3	11	11 22 44  1	 1  2  2  8	 4  3	-	MC 68040
P3	13	56 56 22  1	 1  6  2 24	 4  0	-	VAX

General comment: this may sound weird, but in the long term, it might
be easier to deal with a really complicated bunch of instruction
formats, than with a complex set of addressing modes, because at least
the former is more amenable to pre-decoding into a cache of decoded
instructions that can be pipelined reasonably, whereas the pipeline on
the latter can get very tricky (examples to follow).  This can lead to
the funny effect that a relatively "clean", orthogonal archiecture may
actually be harder to make run fast than one that is less clean.
Obviously, every weirdness has it's penalties....  But consider the
fundamental difficulty of pipelining something like (on a VAX):

	ADDL	@(R1)+,@(R1)+,@(R2)+

(I.e., something that, might theoretically arise from:
	register **r1, **r2;
	**r2++ = **r1++ + **r1++;

Now, consider what the VAX has to do:
1) Decode the opcode (ADD)
2) Fetch first operand specifier from I-stream and work on it.
	a) Compute the memory address from (r1)
		If aligned
			run through MMU
				if MMU miss, fixup
			access cache
				if cache miss, do write-back/refill
		Elseif unaligned
			run through MMU for first part of data
				if MMU miss, fixup
			access cache for that part of data
				if cache miss, do write-back/refill
			run through MMU for second part of data
				if MMU miss, fixup
			access cache for second part of data
				if cache miss, do write-back/refill
		Now, in either case, we now have a longword that has the
		address of the actual data.
	b) Increment r1  [well, this is where you'd LIKE to do it, or
	in parallel with step 2a).]  However, see later why not...
	c) Now, fetch the actual data from memory, using the address just
	obtained, doing everything in step 2a) again, yielding the
	actual data, which we needto stick in a temporary buffer, since it
	doesn't actually go in a register.

3) Now, decode the second operand specifier, which goes thru
everything that we did in step 2, only again, and leaves the results
in a second temporary buffer. Note that we'd like to be starting this
before we get done with all of 2 (and I THINK the VAX9000 probably
does that??) but you have to be careful to bypass/interlock on
potential side-effects to registers .... actually, you may well have
to keep shadow copies of every register that might get written in the
instruction, since every operand can use auto-increment/decrement.
You'd probably want badly to try to compute the address of the second
argument and do the MMU access interleaved with the memory access of
the first, although the ability of any operand to need 2-4 MMU
accesses probably makes this tricky.  [Recall that any MMU access may
well cause a page fault....]

4) Now, do the add. [could cause exception]

5) Now, do the third specifier .... only, it might be a little
different, depending on the nature of the cache, that is, you cannot
modify cache or memory, unless you know it will complete.  (Why? well,
suppose that the location you are storing into overlaps with one of
the indirect-addressing words pointed to by r1 or 4(r1), and suppose
that the store was unaligned, and suppose that the last byte of the
store crossed a page boundary and caused a page fault, and that you'd
already written the first 3 bytes.  If you did this straightforwardly,
and then tried to restart the instruction, it wouldn't do the same
thing the second time.

6) When you're sure all is well, and the store is on its way, then you
can safely update the two registers, but you'd better wait until the
end, or else, keep copies of any modified registers until you're sure
it's safe.  (I think both have been done ??)

7) You may say that this code is unlikely, but it is legal, so the CPU must
do it.  This style has the following effects:
	a) You have to worry about unlikely cases.
	b) You'd like to do the work, with predictable uses of functional
	units, but instead, they can make unpredictable demands.
	c) You'd like to minimize the amount of buffering and state,
	but it costs you in both to go fast.
	d) Simple pipelining is very, very tough: for example, it is
	pretty hard to do much about the next instruction following the
	ADDL, (except some early decode, perhaps), without a lot of gates
	for special-casing.
	(I've always been amazed that CVAX chips are fast as they are,
	and VAX 9000s are REALLY impressive...)
	e) EVERY memory operand can potentially cause 4 MMU uses,
	and hence 4 MMU faults that might actually be page faults...
8) Consider how "lazy" RISC designers can be:
	a) Every load/store uses exactly 1 MMU access.
	b) The compilers are often free to re-arrange the order, even across
	what would have been the next instruction on a CISC.
	This gets rid of some stalls that the CISC may be stuck with
	(especially memory accesses).
	c) The alignment requirement avoids especially the problem with
	sending the first part of a store on the way before you're SURE
	that the second part of it is safe to do.

Finally, to be fair, let me add the two cases that I knew of that were more
on the borderline: i960 and Clipper:
CPU	Age	3a 3b 3c 3d	4a 4b 5a 5b	6a 6b	# ODD
RULE	<6	=1 =4 <5 =0	=0 =1 <2 =1	>4 >3
J1	5	 4+ 8+ 9+ 0      0  1  0  2      4+ 3+	5	Clipper
K1	3	 2+ 8+ 9+ 0	 0  1  2+ -      5  3+	5	Intel 960KB

	1) RISCs share certain architectural characteristics, although there
	are differences, and some of those differences matter a lot.
	2) However, the RISCs, as a group, are much more alike than the
	CISCs as a group.
	3) At least some of these architectural characteristics have fairly
	serious consequences on the pipelinability of the ISA, especially
	in a virtual-memory, cached environment.
	4) Counting instructions turns out to be fairly irrelevant:
		a) It's HARD to actually count instructions in a meaningful
		way... (if you disagree, I'll claim that the VAX is RISCier
		than any RISC, at least for part of its instruction set :-)
		Why: VAX has a MOV opcode, whereas RISCs usually have
	  	a whole set of opcodes for {LOAD/STORE} {BYTE, HALF, WORD}
		b) More instructions aren't what REALLY hurts you, anywhere
		near as much features that are hard to pipeline:
		c) RISCs can perfectly well have string-support, or decimal
		arithmetic support, or graphics transforms ... or lots of
		strange register-register transforms, and it won't cause
		problems .....  but compare that with the consequence of
		adding a single instruction that has 2-3 memory operands,
		each of which can go indirect, with auto-increments,
		and unaligned data...

Article: 30346 of comp.arch
Path: odin!!mash
Subject: Updated addressing mode table

I promised to repost this with fixes, and people have been asking for
it, so here it is again: if you saw it before, all that's really
different is some fixes in the table, and a few clarified

THE GIANT ADDDRESSING MODE TABLE (Corrections happily accepted) This
table goes with the higher-level table of general architecture

Address mode summary
r	register
r+	autoincrement (post)	[by size of data object]
-r	autodecrement (pre)	[by size,...and this was the one I meant]
>r	modify base register	[generally, effective address -> base]
				NOTE: sometimes this subsumes r+, -r, etc,
				and is more general, so I categorize it
				as a separate case.

d	displacement		d1 & d2 if 2 different displacements
x	index register
s	scaled index
a	absolute	[as a separate mode, as opposed to displacement+(0)
I	Indirect

Shown below are 22 distinct addressing modes [you can argue whether
these are right categories].  In the table are the *number* of
different encodings/variations [and this is a little fuzzy; you can
especially argue about the 4 in the HP PA column, I'm not even sure
that's right].  For example, I counted as different variants on a mode
the case where the structure was the same, but there were
different-sized displacements that had to be decoded.  Note that
meaningfully counting addressing modes is *at least as bad* as
meaningfully counting opcodes; I did the best I could, and I spect a
lot of hours looking at manuals for the chips I hadn't programmed
much, and in some cases, even after hours, it was hard for me to
figure out meaningful numbers... *Most* of these archiectures are used
in general-purpose systems and *most* have at least one version that
uses caches: those are important because many of the issues in
thinking about addressing modes come from their interactions with MMUs
and caches...

	1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  21  22
							             r   r
						           r  r  r   +d1 +d1
	            r  r  r |              |   r  r |   r  r+ +d +d1 I   +s
	   r  r  r  +d +x +s|         s+ s+|s+ +d +d|r+ +d I  I  I   +s  I  
	r  +d +x +s >r >r >r|r+ -r a  a  r+|-r +x +s|I  I  +s +s +d2 +d2 +d2
	-- -- -- -- -- -- --|-- -- -- -- --|-- -- --|-- -- -- -- --- --- ---
AMD 29K	 1		    |		   |	    |   
Rxxx	    1		    |		   |	    |   
SPARC	    1  1  	    |		   |	    |   
88K         1  1  1	    |		   |	    |   
HP PA       2  1  1  4  1  1|		   |	    |   
ROMP     1  2		    |		   |	    |    
POWER       1  1     1  1   |		   |	    |    
i860        1  1     1  1   |		   |	    |    
Swrdfish 1  1  1	    |       1	   |	    |    
ARM      2  2     2  1     1| 1  1
Clipper  1  3  1            | 1  1  2      |	    |    
i960KB   1  1  1  1  	    |       2  2   |    1   |    

S/360       1  		    |		        1   |    
i486     1  3  1  1	    | 1  1  2      |    2  3|   
NSC32K      3		    | 1  1  3  3   |   	   3|    	  9 	  
MC68000  1  1		    | 1  1  2	   |	2   | 
MC68020  1  1		    | 1  1  2	   |	2  4|  	      	      16  16
VAX	 1  3     1	    | 1  1  1  1  1| 1     3| 1  3  1  3  


1) Columns 1-7 are addressing modes used by many machines, but very
few, if any clearly-RISC architectures use anything else.  They are
all characterized by what they don't have:

	2 adds needed before generating the address
	indirect addressing
	variable-sized decoding

2) Columns 13-15 include fairly simple-looking addressing modes, which
however, *may* require 2 back-to-back adds beforet he address is
available.  [*may* because some of them use index-register=0 or
something to avoid indexing, and usually in such machines, you'll see
variable timing figures, depending on use of indexing.]

3) Columns 16-22 use indirect addressing.


1) Clipper & i960, of current chips, are more on the RISC-CISC border,
or are sort of "modern CISCs".  ARM is also characterized (by ARM
people, Hot Chips IV: "ARM is not a "pure RISC".

2) ROMP has a number of characteristics different fro mteh rest of the
RISCs, you might call it "early RISC", and it is of course no longer

3) You might consider HP PA a little odd, as it appears to have more
addressing modes, in the same way that CISCs do, but I don't think
this is the case: it's an issue of whether you call something several
modes or one mode with a modifier, just as there is trouble counting
opcodes (with & without modifiers).  From my view, neither PA nor
POWER have truly "CISCy" addressing modes.

4) Notice difference between 68000 and 68020 (and later 68Ks): a bunch
of incredibly-general & complex modes got added...

5) Note that the addressing on the S/360 is actually pretty simple,
mostly base+displacement, although RX-addressing does take 2

6) A dimension *not* shown on this particular chart, but also highly
relevant, is that this chart shows the different *types* of modes,
*not* how many addresses can be found in each instruction.  That may
be worth noting also:
	AMD : i960	1	one address per instruction
	S/360 - MC68020	2	up to 2 addresses
	VAX		6	up to 6

By looking at alignment, indirect addressing, and looking only at
those chips that have MMUs, consider the number of times an MMU
*might* be used per instruction for data address translations:
	AMD - Clipper	2		[Swordfish & i960KB: no TLB]
	S/360 - NSC32K	4
	MC68Ks (all)	8
	VAX		24

When RS/6000 does unaligned, it must be in the same cache line (and
thus also in same MMU page), and traps to software otherwise, thus
avoiding numerous ugly cases.

Note: in some sense, S/360s & VAXen can use an arbitrary number of
translations per instruction, with MOVE CHARACTER LONG, or similar
operations & I don't count them as more, because they're defined to be
interruptable/restartable, saving state in general-purpose registers,
rather than hidden internal state.

1) Computer design styles mostly changed from machines with:
	2-6 addresses per instruction, with variable sized encoding
	address specifiers were usually "orthogonal", so that any could ggo
		anywhere in an instruction
	sometimes indirect addressing
	sometimes need 2 adds *before* effective address is available
	sometimes with many potential MMU accesses (and possible exceptions)
		per instruciton, often buried in the middle of the instruction,
		and often *after* you'd normally want to commit state because
		of auto-increment or other side effects.
to machines with:
	1 address per instruction
	address specifiers encoded in small # of bits in 32-bit instruction
	no indirect addressing
	never need 2 adds before address available
	use MMU once per data access

and we usually call the latter group RISCs.  I say "changed" because
if you put this table together with the earlier one, which has the age
in years, the older ones were one way, and the newer ones are

2) Now, ignoring any other features, but looking at this single
attribute (architectural addressing features and implementation
effects therof), it ought to be clear that the machines in the first
part of the table are doing something *technically* different from
those in the second part of the table.  Thus, people may sometimes
call something RISC that isn't, for marketing reasons, but the people
calling the first batch RISC really did have some serious technical
issues at heart.

3) One more time: this is *not* to say that RISC is better than CISC,
or that the few in the middle are bad, or anything like that ... but
that there are clear technical characteristics...

-john mashey    DISCLAIMER: generic disclaimer, I speak for me only, etc
DDD:    415-390-3090	FAX: 415-967-8496
USPS:   Silicon Graphics 6L-005, 2011
        N. Shoreline Blvd, Mountain View, CA 94039-7311

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