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Feminist Interpretation of Fairy Tales

This two-part discussion of feminist interpretations/discussions of 
fairy tales took place on WMST-L in June, 1994.  For a list of more
WMST-L files available on the Web, see the WMST-L File List.


Date: Sun, 12 Jun 1994 19:24:08 -0400
From: Stacey Michele Horstmann <shorstm@UNIX.CC.EMORY.EDU>
Subject: Fairy Tales
Does anyone have any recommendations for books and/or articles on
feminist interpretations/discussions of fairy tales.  All cites are
welcomed, but I am especially looking for something that would be
accessible to upper level undergraduates.
Thank you
Stacey Horstmann
Emory University

Date: Sun, 12 Jun 1994 21:42:00 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Fairy Tales
If you're looking for a terrific reworking of traditional fairy tale
images and structure (though this is obviously not a critical study),
try teaching Elena Poniatowska's short story "A Little Fairy Tale."
It's frequentlt anthologized, and I often teach it along with a Grimm
tales such as "The Juniper Tree."  For another reworking (honestly, I'm
not being paid by Atwood's publishers for mentioning her work in my last
two postings to this list!!! :-), you might check out *The Robber Bride.*
Before we discuss fairy tales and their feminist reinterpretations in class,
I often ask them to recollect the fairy tale that made the strongest
impact on them (my students, not the fairy tales) as children, and then
we proceed to reinterpret the cultural symbols in the tales as a class.
This is always LOTS of fun.
BTW, I'm wondering how we would answer the same question.  The fairy tale
I remember the most vividly is "Stone Soup," but I won't bother to go into
why unless people are interested in discussing this topic.  I look forward
to seeing what titles people on the list suggest to you.    Anne.
Anne Clark Bartlett
DePaul University

Date: Sun, 12 Jun 1994 23:33:54 -0500 (EST)
From: Margaret Susan Thompson <THOMPSON@MAXWELL.SYR.EDU>
Subject: feminism & fairy tales
    Regarding feminist analysis of fairy tales, try Madonna
Kolbenschlag, KISS SLEEPING BEAUTY GOODBYE (Harper & Row, 1988[?]), as
well as others of her works.
Margaret Susan Thompson <thompson@maxwell.syr.edu>
Dept. of History, 145 Eggers Hall
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1090
315-443-5882, 443-2210

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 06:57:00 -0500 (EST)
Subject: feminism & fairy tales
If you are looking for a feminist analysis of fairy tales, I have always
found Andrea Dworkin's analysis very useful.  It is in one of her older
books "Woman Hating" (Dutton, 1974).  She discusses the roles that many
women play in Western fairy tales and their implications.  She points out,
for example, that females are particularly desirable when they are sleeping
(some like Snow White and Sleeping Beauty are positively comatose).  She
also points out that good men are likely to fall under the influence of a
powerful female and harm their children.  "The good woman must be possessed.
The bad woman must be killed, or punished.  Both must be nullified
(Dworkin, 1974, p. 48.)"

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 08:17:27 -0500 (EST)
From: Consuelo Lopez Springfield <CSPRINGF@UCS.INDIANA.EDU>
Subject: Fairy Tales
Rosario Ferre (Puerto Rico) deals with fairy tales (Maria Sabida) and
kids songs in PAPELES DE PANDORA, published in English as THE YOUNGEST
DOLL.  Ksenija Bilbija's upcoming essay in CALLALOO's special issue
on Puerto RIcan women in literature and art is well worth reading.
It is entitled "'The Youngest Doll' by Rosario Ferre:  On Women,
Dolls, Golems and Cyborgs."  The issue will be out later this summer.
Consuelo Lopez Springfield

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 09:18:59 -0400 (EDT)
From: "Kathleen Marszycki." <Kathleen.Marszycki@TRINCOLL.EDU>
Subject: Fairy Tales
Nina Auerbach's Forbidden Journeys: Fairy tales and fantasies by Victorian
Women Writers may be useful, not only for the tales themselves, but
Auerbach's introductory chapter is great.  I hope these suggestions will be
compiled and submitted to the WMST-L?  This is a great topic.
"If you decide to enter the page . . ."
                        (Margaret Atwood)

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 09:35:25 -0400
From: Lisa Jadwin <jadwin@SJFC.EDU>
Subject: feminism & fairy tales
Here are some sources that have been helpful to me.  Most are not overtly
feminist in orientation but are progressive and historicist in approach.
Zipes, Jack.  Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion:  The Classical Genre
for Children and the Process of Civilization.  NY:  Methuen/Routledge, 1987.
Zipes, Jack.  Breaking the Magic Spell:  Radical Theories of Folk and
Fairy Tales.  New York:  Methuen/Routledge, 1981.
Zipes, Jack, ed.  Don't Bet on the Prince:  Contemporary Feminist Fairy
Tales in North America and England.  NY:  Methuen/Routledge 1986.  [I
think this is the book Serena was talking about.]
Tatar, Maria.  Off with Their Heads:  Fairy Tales and the Culture of
Childhood.  Princeton UP, 1991.
Tatar, Maria.  The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales.  Princeton UP,
And my favorite, especially for teaching (you can use this with a whole
variety of texts from popular and "high" culture"):
Dundes, Alan.  Cinderella:  A Casebook.  New York:  Wildman P, 1983.
Bruno Bettelheim's The Uses of Enchantment might be a useful counterpoint
to feminist discussion of FTs - I find his interpretations to be very
sexist at times, though it's my impression that his book has been very
influential, particularly with early childhood educators.
Lisa Jadwin

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 09:36:00 -0400 (EDT)
From: "Laura.Julier" <21798JUL@MSU.EDU>
Subject: Fairy Tales
Jack Zipes's book (he's listed as editor) is titled DON'T BET ON THE PRINCE:
not only new and "revisioned" fairy tales, but a section of critical essays
on, for instance, the history of the various versions of Little Red Riding
Hood and the illustrations that accompanied them.  It's very accessible to
undergraduates, and sophisticated enough for upper level women's studies
classes. As of a couple of years ago, the list price was about $12, but my
university book store had to special order it.
L.Julier, Michigan State Univ, 21798JUL@MSU.EDU

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 13:04:27 -0700
From: Marilyn Edelstein <MEDELSTEIN@SCU.BITNET>
Subject: feminism & fairy tales
Angela Carter's feminist reworking of fairy and folk tales is entitled
_The Bloody Chamber_ (e.g., the title story is a retelling of Bluebeard
in which the mother saves the daughter, not a handsome prince); some
feminist critics have suggested, though, that Carter's work may not
be as feminist as it's been taken to be, but I think it is (as
well as postmodern, erotic, funny, etc.).  She uses Grimm and Perrault
versions of the tales to rework.  These are clearly tales for adults,
though.  Marilyn Edelstein, English, Santa Clara U

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 18:30:48 -0400
From: Sherry Linkon <f0127713@CC.YSU.EDU>
Subject: feminism & fairy tales
To add to Marilyn Edelstein's comments on Angela Carter's revised tales, I
used part of _Company of Wolves_ in a Women's Studies course this year, and
it generated great discussion about what we define as "feminist" in terms
of sexuality, women's power, relationships with men, etc.  I haven't read
Carter's other work, but if others are like this story (an excerpt in the
reader, _Gender Images_), her stories might work well as course readings.
Sherry Linkon

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 18:31:32 -0600
From: Harriet Linkin <hlinkin@NMSU.EDU>
Subject: feminism & fairy tales
To add to Sherry Linkon and Marilyn Edelstein's comments on Angela
Carter's revised tales: her revisions not only offer what I have taught as
feminist revisions of 19th century fairy tales but also of much 19th
century literature.  For instance the opening story in the collection,
also titled "The Bloody Chamber," offers a re-reading of Bluebeard in
which the narrator-wife is rescued by her mother rather than her brothers,
her mother realizing something is wrong after she talks to her daughter on
the phone (yep, they're modernized, or should I say post-modernized).  But
Carter codes the story beautifully with echoes of _Jane Eyre_ and other
19th century texts so that readers make critical connections.  One
excellent course grouping I used in a Women Writers literature class went
from Jane Eyre to Wide Sargasso Sea to The Bloody Chamber; students were
able to consider the kinds of revisions Rhys and Carter offered as a
series of feminist tellings.  I've just published something on Carter in
_Contemporary Literature_ that goes on with this argument.  She's a great
read, and a wonderful writer to teach.
Harriet Kramer Linkin
English, New Mexico SU
e-mail: hlinkin@nmsu.edu

Date: Mon, 13 Jun 1994 21:26:40 -0400
From: Kathryn E Wilson <kwilson@SAS.UPENN.EDU>
Subject: Fairy Tales
Stacey Michele Horstmann wrote:
> Does anyone have any recommendations for books and/or articles on
> feminist interpretations/discussions of fairy tales.  All cites are
> welcomed, but I am especially looking for something that would be
> accessible to upper level undergraduates.
> Thank you
> Stacey Horstmann
> Emory University
> shorstm@unix.cc.emory.edu
You might look at _Feminist Messages: Coding in Women's Folk Culture_ ed.
by Joan Radner.  There are two essays there on fairy tales, one by Susan
Gordon, "The Powers of the Handless Maiden" and  very nice (I think) piece
by Kay Stone, "Burning Brightly: New Light From an Old Tale" in which she
discusses her own reworking of "Frau Trude" over the years.  She is
herself a storyteller, and the essay shows very well how a woman might
refashion a Grimm tale through performance(s).  I've used this essay with
undergraduates at several levels to good effect, alongside Anne Sexton's
Kate Wilson
Department of Folklore and Folklife
University of Pennsylvania

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 00:21:14 -0400
From: Patricia Moyer <pmoyer@GIBBS.OIT.UNC.EDU>
Subject: feminism and fairy tales
Marie von Franz, The Feminine Element in Fairy Tales.
 Patricia Moyer  pmoyer@email.unc.edu

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 01:25:08 -0400
From: Stacey Michele Horstmann <shorstm@UNIX.CC.EMORY.EDU>
Subject: fairy tales
Thank you all for the references on feminist interpretations of fairy
tales that keep pouring in both to the list and to my personal e-mail
address.  I will honor the request made by several of you to compile and
post a cumulative list.  I will do so early next week.  In the meantime,
please continue to send any thoughts you have.  This seems to be a hot topic.
As to the fairy tale that most influenced my life ... sadly, it's
Cinderella (yes, the Disney version).  And no amount of reading of
feminist theory, politics, literary criticism, etc. seems to be able to
completely undo the damage. ...
Stacey Horstmann
Emory University

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 11:02:05 -0400
From: Ivy Melinda Gilbert <igilbert@SAS.UPENN.EDU>
Subject: feminism & fairy tales
> A few more potentially useful works for Stacey Horstmann:
> Marcia R. Lieberman "Some Day My Prince Will Come:  Female Acculturation
>     Through the Fairy Tale" College English 383-395 (sorry, I seem to
>     have misplaced the rest of the reference...)
> Kay F. Stone "The Misuses of Enchantment:  controversies on the Signifi-
>     cance of Fairy Tales" in _Women's Folklore, Women's Culture_,
>     ed. Rosan A. Jordan and Susan J. Kalcik (Philadelphia, Univ. of
>     Pennsylvania Press, 1985)
> and Kay Stone has another article entitled "Things Walt Disney Never Told
>     Us" which may be useful if one is discussing popular culture.
> --Ivy Gilbert
> igilbert@mail.sas.upenn.edu

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 12:20:52 -0400
Subject: fairy tales
One of the most interesting approaches from a teaching perspective is to
use a variety of interpretations of the same story. Stacey is not alone
in thinking Walt Disney did it all. There are hundreds of versions of
Cinderella and in showing how different artists present the tale new
insights might be uncovered. For example, a chinese version, a korean version
and Egyptian version make exciting contrasts to Disney. This concept of
using picture books of fairy tales works for many tales since there are
innumerable version. For example, Barbara Willard has done Beauty and
the Beast with Barry Moser illustrations BUT what is fascinating is that
she sets it in the Rinebeck, Hudson River  area of New York. The mood is
altered and one sees a new way to visit the story. Lon Po Po by Ed Young
is a re-telling of Little Red Riding Hood and Tony Ross has provided and
alternative version. In some ways it is like watching a play from
Shakespeare that is interpreted in a multitude of ways. [If any one
wants the complete information on some of the above books, let me know and I wil
   will provide it.]
Another approach of interest is to use some of the modrer modern versions of
fairy tales re-told for adults such as the Tam Lin story, Jane Yolen/s Briar Ros
   e and many others. Of course, this approach even moves to the erotic with
the Anne Rice's writing under another name. I also have a long list
of these in case anyone should want them.
One thing of additional interest is a work by Molly Bang. Picture This!
She uses Little Red Riding Hood to example a number of variables in art
and does it with paper tearing. I have used this with Kay Vandergrift during
an institute and students were intriques and found it a very positive
experience. Kay asked them to take another fairy tale and do a series
of pictures. Results were incredible--also the students worked in teams
to both do the work and present it to the group. Jane

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 14:55:00 -0400 (EDT)
From: ak28 <Anamaria_H_KOTHE@UMAIL.UMD.EDU>
Subject: Fairy Tales
There is a disturbing "fairy tale" from Argentina called "The Bloody
Countess" by Alejandra Pizarnik.  Although Pizarnik's first (male) editor
compared the tale to those of Borges, I understand that the countess she
bases the tale on did indeed exist.  The editors of _Pleasure in the Word_,
in which the tale was recently published in English, echo the Borges
comparison, but I am interested in knowing to what extent her tale
intersects with the existence of an historical figure.
Ana Kothe

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 18:34:34 -0500 (CDT)
From: Stacey Michele Horstmann <shorstm%UNIX.CC.EMORY.EDU@vm1.spcs.umn.edu>
Subject: fairy tales (fwd)
This message came to my personal mail box.  Since the author gave her
permission, I decided to post it to the rest of the list.
Once again thank you all for your suggestions.  They keep pouring in even
as I read my mail.  I'm going to begin compiling the list this evening.
Stacey Horstmann
---------- Forwarded message ----------

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 18:34:34 -0500 (CDT)
From: Ellen J Stekert <steke001@maroon.tc.umn.edu>
To: Stacey Michele Horstmann <shorstm%UNIX.CC.EMORY.EDU@vm1.spcs.umn.edu>

Subject: Re: fairy tales
Regarding the most recent message I've read on this list -- there is a
book from about 1988, entitled something close to *Writing Across the
Curriculum,* that has several versions of Cinderella.  Actually the Dundes
casebook serves this purpose quite well.  He is an accurate compiler.  His
interpretations are arbitrarily Freudian (not redundant).
You might also know Dundes' casebooks on Oedipus and on Little Red Riding
Hood.  I am surprised that the people on the WmSt list do not realize that
there is an entire discipline out there called "folklore," and many of us
trained and PhD'd folklorists would be happy to help you with some of your
searches.  Unfortunately, it might be necessary to learn how to use some
of the old classification tools such as the Motif-Index and the Tale Type
You might wish to know that there have been several monographs written
on the international occurrences of the Cinderella tale (which actually
is, in folklore terms, "Aarne-Thompson Tale Type Number 510 A&B," but
never mind that right now) -- the monographs were done in the days of past
theoretical perspectives in folklore scholarship, but the texts are still
recoverable.  See Anna Brigitta Rooth *The Cinderella Cycle* (Folklore
Fellow Communications) Lund, 1951, and Marian R. Cox *Cinderella* (PFLS
XXXI) London 1893.
I hope this is of some help -- and if you feel it has a place, you may
post it to the entire list.
very best to you,
Ellen J. Stekert

Date: Tue, 14 Jun 1994 18:13:51 -0700
From: Linda Stacy Garber <lglg@LELAND.STANFORD.EDU>
Subject: feminism and fairy tales
Another place to look for feminist revisions of fairy tales
is poetry.  A few poems that come to mind immediately
are Anne Sexton's "Rapunzel" and Judy Grahn's "detroit"
(about The Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe, in _The Work
of a Common Woman_).
Linda Garber

Date: Wed, 15 Jun 1994 00:02:33 -0400
Subject: fairy tales (fwd)
I value indeed the scholarship of folklorists but I was looking at this
from the perspective of teaching when one might use picture story versions
to demonstrate differences and also emphasis placed by the illustrator on
particular events in the tale. Some do not follow Propp or any particular
pattern but choose the best event(s) to illiustrate. Remember, children
encounter these tales at a young age and often the versions in the home
are Disney and these children grow up believing that to be the only version.
You see I envision a relationship of children's literature, in this instancem,
fairy tales, to women's studies. I do not dismiss more scholarly investigation
of Stith Thompson's Motif Indices and the work implicit in it. I only am
suggesting an alternative. Jane

Date: Wed, 15 Jun 1994 11:40:47 -0500
Subject: feminist fairy tales
    As a feminist children's librarian and prof. of religious studies,
 I take special interest in this conversation.  Two recent books that I love
are Cinder Edna (1994, author? I'm at home, the book is in the office) and the
Story of May, (Mordecai Gerstein). The former compares Cinderella's helplessness
with the self-reliance of her more pragmatic neighbor, Cinder Edna, who wears
loafers to the ball because she knows she'll be dancing a lot, and who saves
her money for a dress and takes the bus to the castle, etc.
    The  latter can be interpreted as femayl version of the hero myth.
The heroine, May, meets all of the months searching for her father, December,
and finally returns to her mother, April.  It has certain parallels to Murdock'
s The Heroine's Journey (Shambala, 1990).
Carolyn Kost

Date: Mon, 20 Jun 1994 20:06:42 -0400
From: Stacey Michele Horstmann <shorstm@UNIX.CC.EMORY.EDU>
Subject: fairy tales list
The following is the cumulative list of recommendations of analyses of
fairy tales.  Many of you also recommended new fairy tales, retellings of
old fairy tales, and other writings told from a more "feminist"
perspective.  I have included them in the list as well.
Also accept my apologies for not defining what I meant by
feminist ... that was done intentionally as that is a discussion in and
of itself and I just wanted each of you to give  me suggestions based on
your own understanding of that term.
Your suggestions have been very rich.  Compiling this list
has been quite a task.  And in all honesty this is not even my own
project buy a favor for two friends who do not have access to this list.
However, I have put it on my list of "courses I want to teach someday."
I hope you have all enjoyed the topic.
I do want to make a couple things clear however ...
First, I do understand that Disney did not invent fairy tales and that
they have a rich and varied history.  Second, I also understand that
women made contributions to history beyond fairy tales.  I am a
historian in training.  It is strange how innocent comments can be
misconstrued over the net.
I hope you enjoy the list.
Here's the list!!!
Atwood, Margaret. _The Robber Bride_ New York: Nan A. Talese/Doubleday,
19__. [reworked fairy tale]
Auerbach, Nina. _Forbidden Journeys: Fairy Tales and Fantasies by
Victorian Women Writers_ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
[analysis/ fairy tales]
Bang, Molly. _Picture This: Perception and Composition_ Boston: Little,
Brown, 1991.
Barchers, Suzanne I. _Wise Women: Folk and Fairy Tales from Around the
World_ Englewood, Co.: Libraries Unlimited, 1990.
Bettleheim, Bruno. _The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance
of Fairy Tales_ New York: Vintage Books, 1977. [suggested as a
couterpoint to feminist interpretations]
Bilbija, Ksenija. "`The Youngest Doll' by Rosarro Ferre: On Women, Dolls,
Golems and Cybergs." _Callaloo_ (Summer 1994). [analysis]
Bradshaw, Gillian. _In Winter's Shadow_ New York: New American Library, 1982.
[stories told by women]
Bradley, Marion Zimmer. _The Mists of Avalon_ New York: Knopf, 1982.
[stories told by women]
Carter, Angela. _The Bloody Chamber_ New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
[rewritten fairy tales]
Carter, Angela. _The Old Wives Fairy Tale Book_ New York: Pantheon Books,
Carter, Angela. _Saints and Strangers_ New York: Viking Press, 1986.
Carter, Angela. _Strange Things Some Tiems Still Happen: Fairy Tales from
Around the World_ Boston: Faber & Faber, 1993.
Carter, Angela. _Wayward Girls and Wicked Women: An Anthology of
Subversive Stories_ [sorry --- don't have the complete cite]
Claffey, Anne; Kavanaugh, Linda; Russell, Sue, eds. _Rapunzel's Revenge:
Fairytales for Feminists_ Dublin: Attic Press, 1985.
Cox, Marian R. _Cinderella: Three Hundred and forty-five Variants of
Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap o'rushing_ London: Published for the
Folklore Society by D. Nutt, 1893. [analysis]
Datlow, Ellen and Windling, Terri, eds., _Snow White, Blood Red_ New
York: Wm. Morris and Company, 1993.
Dundes, Alan _Cinderella: A Folklore Casebook_ New York: Garland
Publishers, 1982
Dworkin, Andrea. _Woman Hating_ New York: Dutton, 1974 [analysis]
Father Gander. _Father Gander's Nursery Rhymes for the Nineteen-nineties:
or, the Alternative Mother Goose_ Cambridge: Oleander, 1990.
Ferre, Rosario. _The Youngest Doll_ lincoln, Ne: University of Nebraska
Press, 1991. [analysis]
Gerstein, Mordecai. _Story of May_ New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Godwin, Parke _Beloved Exile_ New York: Bantam Books, 1984. [fall of
Camelot as told by Queen Guienevere]
Gordon, Susan. "Powers of the Handless Maiden," in Radner, Joan.  _Feminist
Messages: Coding in Women's Folk Culture_ Urbana, Il: University of Illinois
Press, 1993. [analysis]
Grahn, Judy. _The Work of a Common Woman: The Collected Poetry of Judy
Grahn, 1964-1977_ New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980 (See specifically
the poem "detroit") [writing by women]
Jackson, Ellen B. _Cinder Edna_ New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard, 1994.
Jordan, Elaine [on Angela Carter]
Karr, Phyllis Ann _The Idylls of the Queen_ New York: Ace Books, 1982.
[murder at Camelot as told by Sir Kay in which women characters have
their say]
Kollenschlag, Madonna. _Kiss Sleeping Beauty Goodbye: Breaking the Spell
of Feminine Myths and Models_ San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1988. [analysis]
Lieberman, Marcia R. "Some Day My Prince Will Come: Female Acculturatin
Through the Fairy Tale," _College English_ [don't know the year]: 383-395.
Manning-Sanders, Ruth. _The Book of Kings and Queens_ London: Methuen,
1977. [newly told fairy tales ... also has written other books with
similar titles]
McKinley, Robin. _Beauty: A Retelling of Beauty and the Beast_ New York:
Harper and Row, 1978. [retelling of fairy tale]
McKinley, Robin _Deerskin_ New York: Ace Books, 1993. [retelling]
McLeon, Susan H. and Soven, Margot _Writing Across the Curriculum: A
Guide to Developing Programs_ Newberry Park, Ca:  [don't know publisher],
Morressy, John. _A Voice for Princess_ New York: Ace Fantasy Books, 1986.
Morressy, John. _The Questing of Kedrigen_ New York: Ace Books, 1987.
Muller, Robin. _Tatterhood_ Richmond Hill, Ont: North Winds Press, 1984.
[for children]
Munsch, Robert. _The Paperbag Princess_ [for children]
Namjoshi, Sunito. _Feminist Fables_ London: Sheba Feminist Publishers, 1981.
Poniatowska, Elena. "A Little Fairy Tale" [short story]
Rooth, Anna Brigitta. _The Cinderella Cycle_ (Folklore Fellow
Communications) Lund: 1951.
Ross, T. _Lon Po Po_ [retelling]
Salmonson, Jessica Amanda, ed. _Amazons II_ [see "the Little Robber Girl"]
Sexton, Anne _Transformations_ Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971.
Stone, Kay. "Burning Brightly: New Light From an Old Tale," from Radner,
Joan.  _Feminist Messages: Coding in Women's Folk Culture_ Urbana, Il:
University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Stone, Kay F. "Misuse of Enchantment," in Jordan, Rosan and Kalcik,
Susan, eds., _Women's Folklor/Women's Culture_ Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press, 1985. [analysis]
Stone, Kay F. "Feminist Approaches to the Interpretations of the Fairy
Tales," in Bottigheimer, Ruth B. _Fairy Tales and Society: Illusion,
Allusion, and Paradigm_ Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,
1986. [analysis]
Stone, Kay F. "New Light from an Old Tale," in Radner, Joa, ed., _Feminist
Messages: Coding in Women's Folk Culture_ Urbana, Il: University of
Illinois Press, 1993.
Stone, Kay F., "Things Walt Disney Never Told Us," in Farrer, Claire,
_Women and Folklore_ Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975.
Stone, Kay F. "Three Transformations of Snow White," in McGlatherty, J.,
ed., _The Brothers Grimm and the Folktale_ Urbana, Il: University of
Illinois Press, 1988.
Tatar, Maria. _Off With Their Heads: Fairy Tales and the Culture of
Childhood_ Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. [analysis]
Tatar, Maria. _The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales_ Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1987.
Van Franz, Marie. _The Feminine Element in Fairy Tales_ [do not have the
complete cite]
Walker, Barbara G. _The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets_ New
York: Harper and Row, 1985.
Warner, Marina. _Cinema and the Realms of Enchantment: Lectures, Sermons
and Essays_ London: British Film Institute, 1993. [analysis]
Willard, Barbara and Moser, Barry. [On Beauty and the Beast]
Yolen, Jane _Sleeping Ugly_ New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1981.
Young, Ed. _Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China_ New York:
Scholastic Inc. ,1989.
Zipes, Jack. _Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and
Fairy Tales_ Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979. [analysis]
Zipes, Jack. _Don't Bet on the Prince: Contemporary Feminist Fairy Tales
in North America and England_ New York: Methuen/Routledge, 1986.
[analysis and new fairy tales]
Zipes, Jack. _The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood:
Versions of the Tale in Sociocultural Context_ South Hackey, Ma: Bergin
and Garvey Publishers, 1983. [analysis]
Zipes, Jack. _Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion: The Classical Genre
for Children and the Process of Civilization_ New York:
Methuen/Routledge, 1987. [analysis]
That's all folks!  Thanks again for your contributions.

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