Intrinsic vs.


Obstacles in Adult Learning

All normal adults are motivated to keep growing and developing, but this motivation is frequently blocked by such obstacles as procrastination or learning disabilities. There are many additional significant obstacles to keep adults from learning, however this web site focuses on these two obstacles.


Everyone procrastinates occasionally. However, some people consistently procrastinate, especially when they are faced with challenges. These people become frustrated with themselves, and those around them, because they don’t understand their procrastinating patterns our how to solve them.

According to Dr. Linda Sapadin, there are six types of procrastinators:
(extracted from Dr. Sapadin's book "It's About Time! The 6 Styles of Procrastination and How to Overcome Them")

Perfectionist Procrastinator
Dreamer Procrastinator
Worrier Procrastinator
Defier Procrastinator
Crisis-Maker Procrastinator
Overdoer Procrastinator

She has developed self-assessment quizzes to help you figure out what type of procrastinator you are steps to change your habits. Take the Procrastination Self-Assessment Quiz to find out what type of procrastinator you are. Once you find your results, you will be returned to this page to review how to break the barrier of that procrastination type and become more motivated.

Click here to take the Procrastination Self-Assessment Quiz

The Perfectionist Procrastinator


  • Because perfectionist procrastinators are idealists, they can be very unrealistic in their use of time and energy.
  • Fearing failure so much, perfectionist procrastinators tend to put off starting tasks or delay their completion.
  • Perfectionist procrastinators tend to see everything in life as a burden, making it much more difficult for them to do individual tasks in a timely manner.

Changing the Pattern

Self-assessment Exercise

Recall at least two different occasions when you spent an excessive amount of time and energy doing something in an effort to get it done perfectly. Then for each incident, ask yourself these questions:

  • Why, specifically did I want to do a perfect job?
  • Aside from satisfying the need I felt to do a perfect job, was it actually necessary to spend so much time and energy?
  • Aside from anticipating the possibility of doing a perfect job, did I actually enjoy spending so much time and energy?

Recall at least two times when you avoided doing something altogether – or until the last minute – because you were afraid you wouldn’t do a perfect job. Then for each incident, ask yourself these questions:

  • Why, specifically was I so afraid of not doing well?
  • How, specifically did I go about avoiding this task?
  • What feelings did I have while I was avoiding this task?
  • What happened as a result of my avoidance?

Changing how you think

  1. Practice creative visualization, “seeing” with your mind’s eye images that are refreshing, positive, and constructive.
  2. Acknowledge that perfectionism is your problem.
  3. Strive for excellence rather than perfection.
  4. Focus on what’s realistic rather than what’s ideal.
  5. Practice self-acceptance rather than self-condemnation.
  6. Avoid “all or nothing” thinking.

Changing how you speak

  1. Change your “should”s to “could”s
  2. Change your “have to”s to “want to”s
  3. Change your “must”s to “choose to”s
  4. Avoid using extreme words in your conversation.

Change how you act

  1. Give yourself a time limit for completing a task.
  2. If you are not able to set time limits for yourself, ask others to help you set them.
  3. Make a daily “to do” list that’s short and practical.
  4. Get others involved, letting them do things their way.
  5. Make one deliberate mistake every day.
  6. Reward yourself for achievement.
  7. Learn the value of simply “being” instead of “doing”.

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The Dreamer Procrastinator


  • Dreamer procrastinators desperately want life to be easy and pleasant, so they automatically recoil from anything that might be difficult or distressing.
  • Because dreamer procrastinators live so much in their fantasies, they tend to be passive rather than active.
  • Because dreamer procrastinators tend to be vague, paying little attention to facts and details, it is difficult for them to focus on – or perform – specific tasks.
  • Dreamer procrastinators think of themselves as special people for whom fate will intervene, making hard work and efficiency necessary.

Changing the Pattern

Self-assessment Exercise

  • Recall at least two different occasions when you were faced with a project and had great fantasies about doing it…BUT never got it done. For each occasion, ask yourself these questions:
    • What, specifically was the stumbling block – in other words, what actually kept me from getting it done?
    • What were the consequences of not getting it done? How did I feel? What effect did it have on my life? On my relationships?
  • Recall at least two different times when you finished projects…BUT wasted time or got them done late because you spent too much time dreaming instead of doing. For each occasion, ask yourself:
    • What, specifically, was I dreaming about?
    • What were the consequences of wasting time or being late? How did I feel? What effect did it have on my life? On my relationships?

Change how you think

  1. Practice creative visualization, engaging in a specific process of imagination, one that allows you to experience in your mind what it’s like to turn something abstract into something concrete, step by step.
  2. Be mindful of the difference between “feeling good” and “feeling good about yourself”
  3. Avoid indulging a “private” self-image that’s at odds with your public image.
  4. Train yourself to differentiate between dreams and goals.
  5. Develop the habit of thinking with “5 W’s and 1 H”
    • What do I realistically think I can..?
    • When will I be able to…?
    • Where could I…that would enable me to do that?
    • Who would help me?
    • Why do I want…?
    • How can I…?

Change how you speak

  1. Change your “wish”es, “like to”s, and “try to”s to “will”s.
  2. Change your “someday”s and “soon”s to specific times.
  3. Replace vague, passive language with concrete active language.
  4. Avoid engaging in “make-believe” talk.

Change how you act

  1. Plan each major project in writing, using a time line.
  2. Buy and maintain two huge calendars: one for your job and one for your home/personal life.
  3. Keep two lists with you as you go about each day: a “to do” and a “to think about” list.
  4. Each day, asking yourself at least one special “to do” task in addition to several ordinary ones.
  5. Use an alarm, a timer, or a beeper as a reminder to do a task.
  6. Do fewer passive activities and more active ones.
  7. Seek more interaction with other people.

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The Worrier Procrastinator


  • Lacking confidence in their own abilities, worrier procrastinators tend to avoid or delay doing things.
  • Worrier procrastinators are indecisive in general and often fail to commit themselves to the specific decisions they do make.
  • Worrier procrastinators are excessively dependent upon others for advice, reassurance, nurturance, and help.
  • Preferring the safety of the “known” to the risk of the “unknown” worrier procrastinators have a high resistance to change.

Change the Pattern

Self-assessment Exercise

  • Recall at least two different occasions when you were faced with something you wanted or needed to do BUT never did because you were afraid. For each occasion, ask yourself these questions:
    • What, specifically, as I afraid of?
    • What were the consequences of my not doing it?
  • Recall at least two different occasions when you finished a project BUT wasted time or got it done late because of excessive fears or worries. For each occasion, ask yourself these questions:
    • What, specifically, were my fears and worries?
    • What were the consequences of wasting time or being late

Change how you think

  1. Practice creative visualization, creating a counteractive frame of mind: one that is positive, confident, and easy to shift into whenever you feel your anxiety level rising.
  2. Avoid mentally “catastrophizing” tasks.
  3. Recognize that making no decision is, in fact, making a decision.
  4. When faced with something challenging, be sure to give as much consideration to what’s exciting about it as you do to what’s anxiety-provoking about it.
  5. Learn to be your own best friend when you feel the need for encouragement or support.
  6. To help yourself become more decisive, follow a two-part decision-making process: first commit yourself to the goal, then determine the steps you’ll take to achieve that goal.

Change how you speak

  1. Change your “I don’t know”s to “One thing I do know is…”
  2. Change your “I can’t” statements to compound sentences: “I can’t…but I can…”
  3. Instead of panicking with a rhetorical “What if” question, go one step further and state the answer.
  4. Instead of making an “I’m waiting…” statement, go one step further and make a “meanwhile I’m doing…” statement.
  5. Reduce the number of qualifiers in your speech.

Change how you act

  1. Each day, do at least one thing that you’ve consciously been putting off.
  2. Each week, do something that you’re generally uncomfortable doing.
  3. Read motivational books and develop a personal repertoire of motivational phrases.
  4. Spend more time with optimistic people who inspire self-reliance, and less time with pessimistic people who foster neediness.
  5. Break down every large, intimidating project into an assortment of smaller, easier-to-do tasks.

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The Defier Procrastinator


  • Defier procrastinators see life in terms of what others expect or require them to do, not in terms of what they themselves want or need to do.
  • In order to appear nice or cooperative, defier procrastinators often avoid expressing negative feelings directly and, instead, convey them indirectly by procrastinating.
  • Defier procrastinators resent authority and use procrastination as a means of challenging it.
  • Defier procrastinators are pessimistic by nature, which undercuts their motivation to do things in a timely, effective manner.

Change the Pattern

Self-assessment Exercise

  • Recall at least two different occasions when you were faced with a project or activity that you wanted or needed to do BUT never did it out of defiance. For each occasion, ask yourself these questions:
    • Whom was I defying, and why?
    • What were the consequences to myself of not doing it? What were the consequences to others?
  • Recall at least two different occasions when you finished something BUT wasted time or got it done late because you were caught up in defiance. For each occasion, ask yourself:
    • Whom, specially, was I defying, and why?
    • What were the consequences of my wasting time or being late

Change how you think

  1. Practice creative visualization focusing on creating a richer life that does not focus so intently and self-destructively on other people.
  2. Learn to view what someone else wants or expects as a request not a demand.
  3. Generate multiple options for response to each situation you encounter.
  4. Recognize when you’re starting to burn with indignation and instead, start thinking in a calmer, more practical manner about the best course of action.
  5. Pick your battles carefully, weighing what’s really worth fighting for according to a scale of priorities.
  6. Develop an internal “nurturing parent” who tells you what’s best to do and gives you a better sense of self.

Change how you speak

  1. Mean what you say.
  2. Avoid words of blame or attack.
  3. If you haven’t done something, own up to it.
  4. Minimize expressions of indignation or self-righteousness.
  5. Be aware of your tone of voice, and try not to sound confrontational.

Change how you act

  1. Always strive to act rather than react.
  2. Do what you know needs to be done.
  3. Try to work with a team, not against it.
  4. Do something specific that will satisfy you because it’s done your way.
  5. Take a course in assertiveness so that you can learn better negotiation skills.

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The Crisis-Maker Procrastinator


  • When faced with an undesirable task, crisis-maker procrastinators go from one behavioral extreme to the other: first ignoring the task (underracting), then feeling intensely caught up in it (overreacting).
  • Crisis-maker procrastinators tend to dramatize situations, making themselves the center of attention.
  • Crisis-maker procrastinators are easily bored and resist the “dullness” of doing things rationally and methodically.
  • Crisis-maker procrastinators feel a need to prove themselves by living on the edge.

Change the Pattern

Self-assessment Exercise

  • Recall at least two different occasions when you thought something might ultimately be valuable or pleasurable to you BUT you never got started because the prospect of starting bored you. For each occasion, ask yourself these questions:
    • Why, specifically, did it seem boring to me – in other words, what particular “start-up” activities, conditions, or situations seemed undesirably tedious?
    • What were the consequences of my not even trying this particular endeavor or project? How might things have been different if I had carried it through?
  • Recall at least two different times when you finished doing something BUT wasted time, got it done late, or made more work for yourself than was necessary because you waited until a crises forced you to act. For each time, ask yourself:
    • Why, specifically, did I procrastinate?
    • What, specifically, was the nature of the crises? How might I have prevented it by not procrastinating?
    • What were the consequences of my wasting time, being late, or making more work for myself than necessary?

Change how you think

  1. Practice creative visualization focusing on relaxing and gaining a peace of mind.
  2. Understand that you may not feel interested in doing something until after you get involved in it.
  3. Identify other self-motivators besides stress.
  4. In thinking about a task, try to focus at least as much on facts as you do on feelings.
  5. Strive toward changing your thinking style from extremist and general to moderate and specific.

Change how you speak

  1. Avoid overdramatic, polarized language.
  2. Use more “thinking” words and fewer “feeling” words.
  3. Stop characterizing yourself in conversation as incompetent or victimized.
  4. When discussing a task or responsibility, try focusing on the positive or active, rather than the negative or reactive.

Change how you act

  1. Keep a record of repetitive crises in your life.
  2. Figure out methods for handling things so that you can avoid – or more successfully manage – recurring crises.
  3. Create your own motivators to change a boring task to a more interesting one.
  4. To counteract your need to stimulate yourself by creating false emergencies, engage in healthier activities that will get your adrenaline running.

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The Overdoer Procrastinator


  • Overdoer procrastinators suffer from low self-esteem, which compels them to take on more work than they reasonably handle.
  • Overdoer procrastinators have trouble saying “no” or asking for help.
  • Overdoer procrastinators tend to assume so many different roles and responsibilities that they easily get confused about priorities and distracted from specific tasks.
  • Overdoer procrastinators lack true self-discipline, especially in regard to personal needs.
  • Overdoer procrastinators find it very difficult to relax without feeling guilty or ashamed.

Change the Pattern

Self-assessment Exercise:

  • Recall at least two different occasions when you finished projects BUT you spent too much time doing them or got them done late because you did much more than you needed to do. For each occasion, ask yourself these questions:
    • Why, specifically, did I do much more than I needed to?
    • What were the consequences of spending too much time doing it, or of being late?
  • Recall at least two different occasions when you wanted to do something important BUT never got around to it because you were too busy doing other things. For each occasion ask yourself:
    • What other things, specifically, kept me from doing that important things? How significant to me was each “other thing” I did, compared to that important thing?
    • What were the consequences of not doing that important thing?

Change how you think

  1. Practice creative visualization, focusing on rising above problems in order to realize solutions, creating the solutions as a sort of entertaining action.
  2. Say goodbye to the Superman/Superwoman myth.
  3. Look at life as an adventure, not as a struggle.
  4. Acknowledge the different between priorities and demands.
  5. Try not to depend so much on others for approval
  6. Focus your thoughts on how you are going to gain control over things, instead of how things are controlling you.

Change how you speak

  1. Don’t hesitate to say “no” to others when it’s appropriate.
  2. Replace your “I should”s with “I want to”s.
  3. Talk more about your options than about your obligations.
  4. Speak less defensively, and more positively, about the times when you’re not working.
  5. Avoid characterizing yourself in self-talk in conversations as powerless or overwhelmed.

Change how you act

  1. Keep a journal of everything you do during the day, so that you can evaluate your use of time.
  2. Make – and follow – daily “to do” lists that are organized to help you make good use of your time and energy.
  3. Plan to incorporate an ample amount of leisure activities into our life.
  4. Enlist or hire help whenever appropriate.
  5. Create contingency plans and “backup” systems before you need them, so that they’re readily available if and when you do.
  6. Learn to take relaxation breaks as needed and to enjoy unexpected free time.

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Learning Disabilities

“Learning disabilities are a legitimate disabling condition that can impair more than simply one area of functioning...for some, learning disabilities are a minor inconvenience; for others, an omnipresent and sometimes overwhelming catastrophe” (Reiff et al.). In other words, “there is no such thing as a ‘typical’ child, adolescent, or adult with learning disabilities” (Reiff, Gerber, and Ginsberg, 1997).

After the identification of a learning disability, many adults “felt relieved when they learned that they had an identifiable disorder…they were no longer dumb or stubborn; they simply had a different learning style. Most importantly, it was not their fault” (Reiff et al.). This leads to an important question of how many other capable adults who learn differently are left feeling this way, just because they learn differently? Researchers and educators studying and working with learning disabled students are confident that with the appropriate educational interventions, students can improve their performance. (Reiff et al.)

The best solution is to evaluate the student’s strengths and weaknesses early on, focusing not what is wrong, but what is right (Reiff et al). Work should challenge rather than frustrate them (Strickland, Ganske, and Monroe 2002). “Challenge is…influenced by such factors as a struggling learner’s ability to organize, initiate, monitor, and sustain activities” (Margolis, 2004).

“Teaching approaches for students with learning disabilities have often relied on dubious etiological theories, unsupported claims that basic psychological processes can be remediated, and a reduction of time devoted to direct academic instruction” (Hammill & Larson, 1978). The best a teacher can do for any student with a learning disability is support, inspire, and demand in a fair way, just as they do for all the students their a class (Reiff et al).

Fulk and Mastropieri (1990) offer the following steps for combined attribution retraining and strategy instruction:

  • Explain purpose. Explain the purpose of the strategy. Make sure the student understands how the strategy will help her. Relate the purpose to the student’s frame of reference so she sees value in learning the strategy.
  • Discuss effort. Discuss with the student how she controls her own effort and the critical role effort plays in producing successful outcomes.
  • Model examples. Apply the strategy correctly and incorrectly. Label the examples correct and incorrect.
  • Model attributions. Model controllable attributions while engaging in the strategy (e.g., “I got the right answer because I first skimmed the chapter, read all the headings and subheadings, and tried hard. . . . I got the wrong answer because I rushed and didn’t skim the whole chapter. I didn’t try hard.”)
  • Provide guided practice. Give the student ample opportunity to practice the combined strategy attribution sequence with timely task-specific feedback until she routinely gets the right answer, makes positive attributions about her efforts, and appears comfortable with the strategy (e.g., “Kelly, that’s great. You got the right answer because you first skimmed the chapter and worked hard. You told yourself that putting the effort in improves your understanding.”).
  • Provide independent practice. Give the student ample opportunity to use the combined strategy attribution sequences by herself. Monitor student behavior and offer task-specific feedback as needed (e.g., “Nice job Kelly. You worked hard and gave yourself credit for skimming the chapter before reading it. Your effort made a difference.”).
  • Conduct formative evaluation. Assess the student’s progress and modify teaching strategies if difficulty is apparent (e.g., if Kelly has trouble skimming full chapters of some twenty pages, reduce skimming to a more manageable fraction and provide more frequent feedback).
  • Introduce a new strategy. Once the student routinely uses the strategy correctly and takes credit for making adequate effort and using it correctly, introduce a slightly different strategy appropriate for the student’s instructional level. Re-institute attribution retraining sequence with step 1.

Reiff et. al offer an “integrated and unified approach to curriculum and instruction” for learning disabilities. The following are included in the approach:

  • Control
  • Desire
  • Goal Orientation
  • Reframing
  • Persistence
  • Goodness of Fit
  • Learned Creativity
  • Social Ecologies

Taking Control
“Being ‘in control’ is vital to our sense of well-being. Conversely, when we say that we, or things, are ‘out of control’, we usually do not feel that we are being successful, nor do we have the ability to marshal our resources to achieve” (Reiff et al.).

To initiate the gaining of control, making an effort to control oneself is the basic starting point. This includes “becoming one’s own teacher, trainer, coach, mentor, and disciplinarian” (Bennett, 1993) from reiff. As a teacher, modeling self-discipline, preparedness, and control is an excellent way to demonstrate organization and having consistent routines, three qualities many people with learning disabilities struggle with (Reiff et al.).

Strategies for Developing Control:

  • Utilize role playing
    • Students act out a particular conflict or crisis situation in order to determine or brainstorm an effective outcome.
    • Teachers may wish to use Goldstein’s (1988) prosocial skills training program
      • define the problem
      • role-play
      • get feedback
      • generalize
  • Develop test-taking strategies
    • Students need to predict what is likely to be on a test. Encourage students to develop and answer questions they think will appear.
    • Develop strategies to cope with facing unexpected test questions. Do not leave answers blank. On essay questions in particular, students are likely to receive some credit if they show they know something, even if it is not the specific answer.
    • Find and use opportunities to develop an awareness of cause and effect.

“One can have all the ability in the world, but if the spark to achieve is absent, talent means little.” Reiff et al. An instructor who is effective at motivating is one who challenges students, demands their best, makes the students accountable, and believes that they will be successful. As a result, students internalize the confidence that they are successful, instilling the desire to succeed (Reiff et al.).

Strategies for Encouraging Desire:

  • Implement cooperative learning act ivies
  • Students brainstorm strengths and abilities of each group member.
  • Groups prepare presentations about famous person with disabilities
  • Invite successful adults with learning disabilities to the classroom. They may become more effective role models than celebrities.
  • Reward desire and effort. Emphasize the process rather than just the product.
  • Provide opportunities for success. Nothing whets the appetite for success like the taste of it.
  • Don’t be afraid to challenge but instill a belief that the child is a winner.
  • Goal Orientation
  • Developing goals can be intimidating for many of us, especially those with learning disabilities. Often times our goals are more along the lines of fantasy than reality. Making our goals reasonable ambitions takes effort and planning. “as workable and achievable goals are develo9ped, we have to devise a systematic plan of attach that breaks down the goals into a series of discrete objectives, each an accomplishment that readily culminates toward a higher purpose” (Reiff et al).

Strategies for Fostering Goal Orientation:

  • Create a goal-oriented system of classroom management. The teacher uses a level system where students can earn a hierarchy of privileges for demonstrating increasing levels of appropriate behaviors.
  • Apply the concept of task analysis to the goal setting process.
    • Analyze teaching units in terms of a sequence of component tasks; students should master each before proceeding.
    • Students can break down each task into a series of steps, each of which is attainable.
  • Help students choose reasonable and logical goals that take into account both individual strengths as well as weaknesses. Use IEP’s and other planning tools to share goals and the steps needed to attain them.
  • For career goals, use instruments such as The Self-Directed Search ( Holland, 1985) to explore possible career directions and to analyze the variables used in determining career paths.

“When an individual learns to develop a plan of action to deal with the world based on deep and purposeful knowledge and understanding of self and on an accurate assessment of strengths as well as weaknesses”, we are using our “intrapersonal intelligence” ( Gardner, 1983) to perform a process knows as “reframing”. This process is never easy, and can often times be painful, especially when an adult with learning disabilities deals with the pain of examining his or her learning disabilities, although the positive outcome can make them grow and eventually live up their potential (Stolowitz, 1995). From reiff

Strategies for Promoting Reframing:

  • Facilitate personal assessments
    • Students complete self-analysis of strengths and weaknesses.
    • Individual students transform “I can’t” statements to “I can” statements
  • Make students accountable for their actions
    • Involve students in monitoring and enforcing their own behavioral management systems.
    • Use individual behavior contracts.
  • Encourage students to participate in confidence-building experiences.
    • Incorporate activities and programs traditionally used in various walks of education and business such as Outward Bound.
    • Work with students to develop and pursue special hobbies
  • Develop peer support groups.
  • Utilize school counseling services.
  • Build intrapersonal intelligence. Integrate meditative and reflective activities into curriculum.

Successful people with learning disabilities choose to work long and hard, face adversity willingly, and rebound from any failure with a renewed sense of resolve to succeed as a way of life. If they were lucky, this habit of survival developed as a way of life during childhood or adolescence, transforming a pattern of success in their adult world (Reiff et. al).

Strategies to Help Build Persistence:

  • Devise activities that reward and reinforce persistence.
    • Mastery learning approaches embrace this concept in demanding effort, in spite of initial shortcoming, until the task is mastered.
    • Develop goals that are obtainable and center on personal improvement.
    • Allow students to fail, as long as they can try again.
  • Devise activities that require the use of “creative processes.”
  • Offer extra options to complete a requirement.
  • Use behavior modification methods as a relatively easy means for reinforcing determination and persistence in a systematic manner.

Goodness of Fit
“Successful persons tend to enjoy what they do. Therefore, knowing oneself is integral to determining goodness of fit” (Reiff et. al). Performing successful reframing, guides a person to goodness of fit and choosing an environment that is supportive.

Strategies for Understanding Goodness of Fit:

  • Encourage students to investigate personal interests. Use preference inventories where students determine preferences in areas such as music, food, recreation, hobbies, concerts, menus and camps.
  • Assist with career awareness experiences and build on them progressively and systematically.
  • Use simulation activities to help students increase understanding of goodness of fit.
    • Help student understand positive and negative consequences of choices involving topics from course selection to employment opportunities.
    • Poor choices should be an opportunity for learning
  • Design assessments that identify strengths as well as weaknesses.
  • Make the classroom an environment that provides goodness of fit for diverse learning styles.

Learned Creativity
Creatively turning weaknesses into strengths help people with learning disabilities to cope with social and daily living demands in addition to academic and vocational areas of their lives. Many students with learning disabilities excel at divergent thinking, as they are forced to come up with more than one answer for questions, since they struggled with convergent thinking (Reiff et. al)

Strategies for Developing Learned Creativity:

  • Promote creativity and divergent thinking at every opportunity. Use braining storming activities (for example, how many different ways can we answer a math problem?)
  • Utilize group sharing activities as a means to pass on strategies that work from one student to another.
  • Select activities that have numerous options for completion.
  • Tech a variety of specific study strategies.
  • Develop individual planning guides.

Social Ecologies
People with learning disabilities learn best when surrounded by others who believe in them. Developing this favorable social ecology can start with something as simple as seeing themselves in a positive light, taught to them by people in their life that gave them tools to reinterpret negative comments, and acted as advocates for them.

Strategies for Creating Favorable Social Ecologies:

  • Utilize reciprocal teaching.
  • Implement cooperative learning experiences.
  • Offer support groups.
  • Work with significant others in the student’s life to develop expectations that are realistic, neither too low nor too high.
  • Refer students to counseling when appropriate.
  • Be an advocate for students with learning disabilities.

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Bennett, W. J. (1993). The book of virtues. New York, Simon & Schuster.

Goldstein, A. P. (1988). The Prepare Curriculum: Teaching prosocial competencies. Champaign, IL. Research Press.

Hammill, D., Larson, S. (1978). The effectiveness of psycholinguistic training. Exceptional Children, 44, 403-444.

Holland, J. L. (1985). The self-directed search. Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources.

Mastropieri , Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Fulk , Barbara J. Mushinski. (1990). Teaching Abstract Vocabulary with the Keyword Method: Effects on Recall and Comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 2, 92 - 107

Reiff, Henry B. Gerber, Paul J. Ginsberg, Rick. (1997). Exceeding Expectations: Successful Adults with Learning Disabilities. Austin, TX, PRO-ED, Inc.

Sapadin, Linda. (1996). It’s About Time: The 6 Styles of Procrastination and How to Overcome Them. New York, NY. Penquin Books.

Strickland, D. S., K. Ganske, and J. K. Monroe. (2002). Supporting struggling readers and writers: Strategies for classroom intervention 3–6. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Stolowitz, M. A. (1995). How to achieve academic and creative success in spite of the inflexible, unresponsive higher education system. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 4-6.

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Additional Resources

Alderman, M. K. (1999). Motivation for achievement: Possibilities for teaching and learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.

Alper, S., D. L. Ryndak, and C. N. Schloss. (2001). Alternative assessmentof students with disabilities in inclusive settings. Boston: Allyn andBacon.

Baker, L., and A. Wigfield. (1999). Dimensions of children’s motivation for reading and their relations to reading activity and reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly 34 (4), 452–57.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28 (2), 117–48.

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Kathleen O'Connell
December 2005
University of Maryland, Baltimore County